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316 Research Papers

The last section includes 316 Research Papers


1. In 1960, the U.S. National Cancer Institute noted a report that a decoction of Chaga had been used successfully to treat cancer in Australia. Well known for stimulating the immune system, Chaga was approved for public use against cancer by the Medical Academy of Science in Moscow in 1955.

2. John Pezzuto of the University of Chicago is quoted as "the activity of the Betulinic acid is one of the most promising discoveries amongst 2500 plant extracts studied." The Betulinic acid contained in Chaga covers the full spectrum of immune stimulating effects found in similar medicinal mushrooms such as Maitake and Shiitake mushrooms.

3. Russian and Japanese medical professionals both contend Chaga is many times more effective than Ganoderma Lucidum or Phellinus Linteus. The International Agriculture Development Institute in Korea confirms such claims.

4. The Japanese Cancer Society claims Chaga plays an important role in combating cancer and it jointly used with pharmacology drugs and chemotherapy diminishes their side effects.

5. "It is a fact that Chaga, placed into a birch bark casket, acquires more expressed therapeutic properties. Bioactive substances of the white part of birch bark having triterpenic bonds - betulin, lupeol, betulinic acid, etc. - possess anti-cancerous activity, causing apoptosis (programmed cell death) of cancerous cells and this is transfered to Chaga, thus strengthening its properties..", says Galina Mikhaylovna Fedoseeva the Chairman of the Department of Pharmacognosy and Botany of Irkutsk State Medical University, professor, Doctor of the pharmaceutical sciences.

6. Numerous studies also indicate a 50% reduction in glycemic peaks are achieved due to the Beta Glucan effects on blood sugar levels. There are over 1000 research papers on Beta Glucan activity including studies from Harvard Medical School, National Cancer Institute, the Department of Agriculture and others. These studies prove Beta Glucan are external immunomodulators to keep one's immune system in a highly prepared state.


Women and Cancer Fund Letter:


Women and Cancer Fund
2015 N. Dobson Rd., Ste. 4 #212
Chandler, AZ 85224, USA

Mr. James Osugi

889 S. Rainbow Blvd. Suite 137
Las Vegas, NV 89145

Dear James,

After evaluating, researching and personally seeing the outcome after using Siberian
Chaga, I am pleased to inform you that the Women and Cancer Fund will be supporting
the promotion of the product.

We will be using Chaga in major studies outside of the United States as well as in the
clinics we are presently developing in the Indian Reservations of the USA. As you know,
Indian reservations have their own governmental jurisdiction. Our first Life Center will
be located in the Salt River-Pima Indian Reservation (Scottsdale, AZ.) We are not only
looking at Chaga but other protocols that can quickly affect diabetic patients. We
recommend Chaga as a disease prevention and immune system enhancer at the moment.
The studies will go deeper into each particular disease.

We have done preliminary small studies with the product you donated to our charity.
Chaga is indeed an outstanding product. We will start a study in Brazil in the spring and
we expect to start a second study in Argentina shortly after. The size and length of the
studies will be determined by the availability of funds.

I am looking forward to working with you and creating a venture that will greatly benefit
all concerned.

Cordially yours,
Dr. Alicia Alvarez

Women and Cancer Fund
Dr. Alicia Alvarez
Founder, Chairman and CEO



Chaga Study

Korean J Nutr. 2007 Oct;40(7):601-605. Korean.
Effects of Inonotus Obliqua Extract on Blood Glucose Levels in Genetically Diabetic Mice.
Hong H. Hong H.
Department of Food Service Management and Nutrition, Sangmyung University, Seoul 110-743, Korea.

    This study investigated the therapeutic effects of Inonotus obliqua extract on blood glucose, insulin, and other biochemical parameters in genetically diabetic mice (C57BL/KsJ-m+/+Lepr(db)).

The mice were divided into four groups - control, Chaga 1 (dose of 0.09 mg/kg of body weight), Chaga 5 (5 times of Chaga 1), and Chaga 10 (10 times of Chaga 1)- according to supplemented dose.. Inonotus obliqua extract was orally administered to the animals for 6 weeks. The body and organ (liver and kidney) weights were not different among groups. Fasting blood glucose level was significantly lower in the Chaga 5 group compared with the control (p < 0.05). Hemoglobin A1c content was significantly lower in the Chaga 5 group compared with either the control and Chaga 1 group (p < 0.05). There was no significant difference in serum insulin level among groups. The glucose-6-phosphatase activity in liver was significantly the lowest in Chaga 10 group and was significantly lower in Chaga 5 group as compared with those of control and Chaga 1 groups. Therefore, the results of this study demonstrate that Inonotus obliqua extract alleviates many of the symptoms of diabetes in genetically obese mice and may offer a possibility as a therapeutic supplement for the normalization of blood glucose levels in human with hyperglycemia and have beneficial effects in patients with noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus.

Chaga Research

The post-antibiotic world of Western Medicine is now beginning to study, evaluate, and test Chaga for the active compounds underlying its historically understood homeopathic benefits. As with many other natural medicinal foods and herbs, the modern medical and scientific community is coming to understand that whole supplements like Chaga, offer a complex balance of active compounds, delivery mineral structures, and co-agents, more effective to sustaining a healthy immune balance than isolated compounds synthesized from these natural products. 

The primary active compounds discovered in Siberian Chaga are a variety of triterpenes and sterols, including Lanosterol, Ergosterol Inotodials, Saponins, and Polysaccharides.Modern research is now beginning to demonstrate that these compounds are effective for human maladies treated by folk medicine practitioners with natural products, without toxic side-effect, for millennia.

After being ignored for hundreds of years by western pharmacologists, Chaga is currently enjoying a resurgence as a possible treatment for a wide variety of diseases and health problems, including chronic fatigue syndrome, the flu, stomach problems, and even HIV and certain types of cancer. Recent studies in the U.S., Russia, and other countries have shown Chaga to have anti-tumor benefits related to the mammary glands and female sex organs; studies in Finland have demonstrated that inotodial, one of the most active ingredients in Chaga, was effective against influenza virus and various cancer cells; and Japanese research not only found similar antiviral activity, but also discovered that Chaga shows activity against HIV (protease inhibition).

 Chaga has even been classified as a medicinal mushroom under World Trade Organization (WTO) codes. Arguably, the most well known western research conducted on the use of Chaga has been performed by Dr. Kirsti Kahlos and her team at School of Pharmacology, at the University of Helsinki, Finland. Dr. Kahlos’ team conducted studies validating the immuno-modulating impact of Lanosterol-linked triterpenes effective as a flu-vaccination and for anti-tumor applications. Institutional studies at the University of Tokyo, Japan have determined effectiveness of Inotodials in the destruction of certain carcinosarcomas and mammary adenocarcinomas.

The Melanin complex produced by the Chaga mushroom demonstrates high antioxidant and genoprotective effects ( Melanin Complex from Medicinal Mushroom Inonotus Obliquus, Journal of Medical Mushrooms, 2002, vol. 4) . The polysaccharide beta-glucan, also present in Chaga, is proven to be effective at inhibiting mutagenic and immuno-modulating effects of cancerous tumors by triggering immune system response (SP Wasser, 2002, Institute of Evolution, University of Haifa, Israel). In 1998 there was a study in Poland that demonstrated Chaga's inhibiting effects on tumor growth.[1] Noda et. al found that betulin seems to work highly selectively on tumor cells because the interior pH of tumor tissues is generally lower than that of normal tissues, and betulinic acid is only active at those lower levels.Fulda et al. found in 1997 that once inside the cells, betulinic acid induces apoptosis (programmed cell death) in the tumors.[2] In 2005 there was a study done at Department of Medical Nutrition in South Korea.

The Chaga Mushroom was evaluated for their potential for protecting against oxidative damage to DNA in human lymphocytes. The study found that the polyphenolic extract protected these cells against hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative stress.[3] Another study that year found the endo-polysaccharide of Chaga produced indirect anti-cancer effects via immuno-stimulation.The mycelial endo-polysaccharide of Inonotus Obliquus was identified as a candidate for use as an immune response modifier and indicates that the anti-cancer effect of endo-polysaccharide is not directly tumorcidal but rather is immuno-stimulating.[4][5] It has also been demonstrated as anti-inflammatory.[6] Saitoh Akiko published on the antimutagenic effects of Chaga in 1996, and Mizuno et al. published on the anti tumor and hypoglycemic activities of the polysaccharides from the sclerotia and mycelia of Chaga.

 The following article was published by the NCBI (National Center for Biotechnology Information) a joint venture by the National Library of Medicine and the National Institutes of Health.

Established in 1988 as a national resource for molecular biology information, NCBI creates public databases, conducts research in computational biology, develops software tools for analyzing genome data, and disseminates biomedical information - all for the better understanding of molecular processes affecting human health and disease. Chaga mushroom extract inhibits oxidative DNA damage in human lymphocytes as assessed by comet assay.The Chaga mushroom (Inonotus obliquus) is claimed to have beneficial properties for human health, such as anti-bacterial, anti-allergic, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities. The antioxidant effects of the mushroom may be partly explained by protection of cell components against free radicals. We evaluated the effect of aqueous Chaga mushroom extracts for their potential for protecting against oxidative damage to DNA in human lymphocytes. Cells were pretreated with various concentrations (10, 50, 100 and 500 microg/mL) of the extract for 1 h at 37 degrees C. Cells were then treated with 100 microM of H2O2 (Hydrogen Peroxide) for 5 min as an oxidative stress. Evaluation of oxidative damage was performed using single-cell gel electrophoresis for DNA fragmentation (Comet assay). Using image analysis, the degree of DNA damage was evaluated as the DNA tail moment.Cells pretreated with Chaga extract showed over 40% reduction in DNA fragmentation compared with the positive control (100 micromol H2O2 treatment). Thus, Chaga mushroom treatment affords cellular protection against endogenous DNA damage.

Chaga mushroom (Inonotus obliquus) induces G0/G1 arrest and apoptosis in human hepatoma HepG2 cells.

Vestibulocochlear Research Center, Wonkwang University School of Medicine, #344-2, Shinyoung-dong, Iksan, Jeonbuk 570-749, Korea.

AIM: To investigate the anti-proliferative and apoptotic effects of Chaga mushroom (Inonotus obliquus) water extract on human hepatoma cell lines, HepG2 and Hep3B cells. METHODS: The cytotoxicity of Chaga extract was screened by 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Morphological observation, flow cytometry analysis, Western blot were employed to elucidate the cytotoxic mechanism of Chaga extract.

RESULTS: HepG2 cells were more sensitive to Chaga extract than Hep3B cells, as demonstrated by markedly reduced cell viability. Chaga extract inhibited the cell growth in a dose-dependent manner, which was accompanied with G0/G1-phase arrest and apoptotic cell death. In addition, G0/G1 arrest in the cell cycle was closely associated with down-regulation of p53, pRb, p27, cyclins D1, D2, E, cyclin-dependent kinase (Cdk) 2, Cdk4, and Cdk6 expression.

CONCLUSION: Chaga mushroom may provide a new therapeutic option, as a potential anticancer agent, in the treatment of hepatoma.



Therapeutic effects of substances occurring in higher Basidiomycetes
mushrooms: a modern perspective.

Wasser SP & Weis AL. 1999. Crit Rev Immunol. 1999;19(1):65-96.
International Centre for Cryptogamic Plants and Fungi, Institute of Evolution, University
of Haifa, Israel.

This review highlights some of the recently isolated and identified substances of higher Basidiomycetes
mushrooms origin that express promising antitumor, immune modulating, cardiovascular and
hypercholesterolemia, antiviral, antibacterial, and antiparasitic effects. Medicinal mushrooms have a
long history of use in folk medicine. In particular, mushrooms useful against cancers of the stomach,
esophagus, lungs, etc. are known in China, Russia, Japan, Korea, as well as the U.S.A. and Canada.

There are about 200 species of mushrooms that have been found to markedly inhibit the growth of
different kinds of tumors. Searching for new antitumor and other medicinal substances from mushrooms
and to study the medicinal value of these mushrooms have become a matter of great significance.
However, most of the mushroom origin antitumor substances have not been clearly defined. Several
antitumor polysaccharides such as hetero-beta-glucans and their protein complexes (e.g., xyloglucans
and acidic beta-glucan-containing uronic acid), as well as dietary fibers, lectins, and terpenoids have
been isolated from medicinal mushrooms.

In Japan, Russia, China, and the U.S.A. several different polysaccharide antitumor agents have been developed from the fruiting body, mycelia, and culture medium of various medicinal mushrooms (Lentinus edodes, Ganoderma lucidum, Schizophyllum commune, Trametes versicolor, Inonotus obliquus, and Flammulina velutipes).

Both cellular components and secondary metabolites of a large number of mushrooms have been shown to effect the immune system of the host and therefore could be used to treat a variety of disease states.
Recent, Current & Planned Clinical Studies Using Mushrooms & Mushroom Derivatives
for the Treatment of Diseases

Dr. Stefan Glueck, MD, PhD, Medical Oncologist
The Ontario Cancer Treatment & Research Foundation
Ontario, Canada
Summary: Shiitake, Lentinula edodes & Cancer therapies. Studies on-going.
Dr. M. Ghoneum (25 of 26)3/4/2006 12:23:19 PM
Medicinal Mushrooms - Readings & References
Drew University of Medicine & Science Los Angeles, CA
Summary: Shiitake, Lentinula edodes and other unnamed mushrooms ('basidiomycetous fungi') used in
a clinical study of 11 cancer patients. Study completed. Ghoneum et al. 1995. "Immunomodulatory and
anticancer effects of active hemicellulose compound (AHCC)" International Journal of Immunotherapy
XI (1) 23-28
                                                            Dr. Harry Preuss
                                            Georgetown University Washington DC

Summary: A factor in Maitake mushrooms, Grifola frondosa, reportedly has anti-diabetic properties and
helps the body control blood glucose levels by reducing insulin resistance and enhancing insulin
sensitivity. Initial studies show that Maitake fractions are free from the side effects associated with
conventional drug treatments.
References Compiled by: James Malachowski - Mycologist & Webmaster
Copyright © 1997- 2004 GMHP


Wild Harvested Siberian Chaga Mushroom

(Inonotus Obliquus)

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                     316 Research Papers on Medicinal Mushrooms

1. Adachi, K., Nanba, H., Otsuka, M., and Kuroda, H. 1988. Blood Pressure Lowering Activity
Present in the Fruit Body of Grifola frondosa (Maitake), Chem. Phann. Bull. 36:1000-1006.

2. Adachi, K., Nanba, H., and Kuroda, H. 1987. Potentiation of Host-Mediated Antitumor Activity
in Mice by Beta-glucan Obtained from Grifola frondosa (Maitake), Chem. Pharm. Bull. 35;262-

3. Akiyama, Y. et al. 1981. Immunological characteristics of anti-tumor polysaccharides lentinan
and its analogues, as immune adjuvants. In Manipulation of Host Defense Mechanisms, Aoki, T.
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4. Amagase H. et al. 1984. L.E.M. May be Effective Against Treating Hepatitis B Cases. Abstr.
197 Gastroenterology World Congress, Lisbon

5. Antoniou L.D., et al. 1977. Reversal of Uraemic Impotence by Zinc. Lancet 2:895-98

6. Aoki T. Et al. 1984. Antibodies to HTLV-1 and HTLV-3 in Sera from Two Japanese Patients:
One with possible Pre-A.I.D.S. Lancet 2:936

7. Aoki T, 1987. Low natural killer syndrome: clinical and immunologic features. Nat Immun Cell
Growth Regul 6(3), 116-128

8. Arinaga S, 1992. Enhanced induction of lymphokine-activated killer activity after lentinan
administration in patients with gastric carcinoma. Int J Immunopharmacol 14(4), 535-53

9. Arinaga S, 1992. Enhanced production of interleukin 1 and tumor necrosis factor by peripheral
monocytes after lentinan administration in patients with gastric carcinoma. Int J
Immunopharmacol 14(1), 43-47

10. Balon TW, Jasman AP, Zhu JS. A fermentation product of Cordyceps sinensis increases wholebody
insulin sensitivity in rats. J Altern Complement Med. 2002 Jun;8(3):315-23.

11. Bao X, Fang J, Li X. Structural characterization and immunomodulating activity of a complex
glucan from spores of Ganoderma lucidum. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2001 Nov;65(11):2384-

12. Brauer D, Kimmons T, Phillips M. Effects of management on the yield and high-molecularweight
polysaccharide content of shiitake (Lentinula edodes) mushrooms. J Agric Food Chem.
2002 Sep 11;50(19):5333-7.

13. Benedict, RG & LR Brady. 1972. Antimicrobial activity of mushroom metabolites. J. Pharm.
Sci. 61: 1820-1822.

14. Bobek P, 1991. Cholesterol-lowering effect of the mushroom Pleurotus ostreatus in hereditary
hypercholesterolemic rats. Ann Nutr Metab 35(4), 191-19

15. Bok JW, et al. 1999. Antitumor sterols from the mycelia of Cordyceps sinensis. Phytochemistry.

16. Borchers AT, et al. 1999. Mushrooms, tumors, and immunity. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med. Sep;221
(4):281-93. Review.

17. Breene W. M. 1989. Nutritional & Medicinal Value of Exotic Mushrooms. Shiitake Mushrooms.
The Proceeding of a National Symposium & Trade Show University of Minnesota 100-102

18. Broadbent, D. 1966. Antibiotics produced by fungi. Bot. Rev. 32: 219-242.

19. Brodziak L, 1984. Nutritive value of the mushroom Lentinus edodes (Berk.) Sing. (shiitake)
compared with that of other edible mushrooms Rocz Panstw Zakl Hig 35(1), 59-62

20. Chang, R. 1993. Limitations and Potential applications of Ganoderma and related fungal
polyglycans in clinical ontology; First International Conference on Mushroom Biology and (3 of 26)3/4/2006 12:23:19 PM
Medicinal Mushrooms - Readings & References
Mushroom products: 96

21. Chang, R. 1994. Effective dose of ganoderma in humans. In Proc. Contributed Symposium 59A,
B. 5th Intl. Mycol. Congr., Buchanan PK, Hseu RS and Moncalvo JM (eds), Taipei, p. 101-13.

22. Chang, R. 1996. The Central Importance of the beta-glucan receptor as the basis of
immunologic bioactivity of ganoderma polysaccharides, In Reishi, Mizuno T, Kim BK (eds), II
Yang Press, Seoul, p.177-9

23. Chang, R. Y. 1996. Potential Application of Ganoderma Polysaccharides in the Immune
Surveillance and Chemoprevention of Cancer. 153-160 In: Royse, D.J. (ed). 1996. Mushroom
Biology and Mushroom Products. Proceedings of the Second International Congress.

24. Cheng HH, Hou WC, Lu ML. Interactions of lipid metabolism and intestinal physiology with
Tremella fuciformis Berk edible mushroom in rats fed a high-cholesterol diet with or without
Nebacitin. J Agric Food Chem. 2002 Dec 4;50(25):7438-43.

25. Cheng Q, 1992. Effect of cordyceps sinensis on cellular immunity in rats with chronic renal
insufficiency Chung Hua I Hsueh Tsa Chih (Taipei) 72(1), 27-29

26. Chen, A. W., 1997. Topical Use of Ganoderma Mushrooms. The Mushroom Growers
Newsletter V (11), March 1997.

27. Chen, J & R Jiang. 1980. A pharmacognostical study of the Chinese drug Lingzhi (Ganoderma).
Acta. Pharm. Sin. 15:244

28. Chen JR, 1993. The effects of Chinese herbs on improving survival and inhibiting anti-ds DNA
antibody production in lupus mice. Am J Chin Med 21(3-4), 257-26

29. Chen, K & W Zhang. 1987. Advances on anti-aging herbal medicines in China. Abstrcts of
Chinese Medicines. 1:309-330

30. Chen WC, 1995. Effects of Ganoderma lucidum and krestin on cellular immunocompetence in
gamma-ray-irradiated mice. Am J Chin Med 23(1), 71-80

31. Chen YJ, 1997. Effect of Cordyceps sinensis on the proliferation and differentiation of human
leukemic U937 cells. Life Sci 60(25), 2349-2359 (1997)

32. Cheng Q, 1992. Effect of cordyceps sinensis on cellular immunity in rats with chronic renal
insufficiency. Chung Hua I Hsueh Tsa Chih (Taipei) 72(1), 27-29

33. Chihara, G., Maeda, Y. Y. 1969 . Inhibition of mouse sarcoma 180 by polysaccharides from
lentinus edodes, Nature, vol. 222, pg. 687.

34. Chihara G, 1969. Study on the antineoplastic activity and analysis of active fractions of
Polyporaceae, Lentinus edodes and other basidiomycetes. Nippon Rinsho 27(6), 1739-174
35. Chihara G, 1970. Antitumor polysaccharides, lentinan and pachymaran. Saishin Igaku 25(5),

36. Chihara G, et. al. 1970. Fractionation and purification of the polysaccharides with marked
antitumor activity, especially lentinan, from Lentinus edodes (Berk.) Sing. (an edible
mushroom). Cancer Res 30(11), 2776-278

37. Chihara G, 1987. Antitumor and metastasis-inhibitory activities of lentinan as an
immunomodulator: an overview. Cancer Detect Prev Suppl 1, 423-443

38. Chiu JH, et al.1998. Cordyceps sinensis increases the expression of major histocompatibility
complex class II antigens on human hepatoma cell line HA22T/VGH cells. Am J Chin Med.

39. Cochran K.W. et al. 1967 . Botanical Sources of Influenza Inhibitors" - Anti - Microbial Agents (4 of 26)3/4/2006 12:23:19 PM
Medicinal Mushrooms - Readings & References
& Chemotherapy 515

40. Christov G, 1965. Studies on the antitumoral activity of Actinomycetes by the in vitro method.
Dokl Bolg Akad Nauk 18(6), 573-57

41. Cozens, D.D. et al. 1981a. The effect of lentinan on fertility and general reproductive
performance of the rat. Toxicol. Lett. 9:55-64.

42. Currie CR, Wong B, Stuart AE, Schultz TR, Rehner SA, Mueller UG, Sung GH, Spatafora JW,
Straus NA. Ancient tripartite coevolution in the attine ant-microbe symbiosis. Science. 2003 Jan

43. Cutler R.G. 1991. Anti-Oxidants & Ageing. Ann J. Clin. Nutr. 53:373S-379S

44. Czop, J.K., Austen, K.F. 1985. A beta-Glucan inhibit able receptor on human monocytes, J.
Immunol. 134, 2588-593.

45. Daly J.N. et al. 1988. Immune & Metabolic Effects of Arginine in the Surgical Patient" . Annal
Surg. 208(4):512-23

46. Dennart, G. and D. Tucker. 1973. Antirumor polysaccharide Lentinan, a T cell adjuvant. J. Natl.
Cancer lnst. 51:1729.

47. deVere White RW, Hackman RM, Soares SE, Beckett LA, Sun B. Effects of a mushroom
mycelium extract on the treatment of prostate cancer. Urology. 2002 Oct;60(4):640-4.

48. Ding, G. 1987. Anti-arrhythmia agents in traditional Chinese medicines. From Abstrarts of
Chinese Medicines 1:287-308.

49. Diplock A.T. 1991. Anti-Oxidant Nutrients & Disease Prevention: An Overview. Am J. Clin
Nutr. 53:189S-193S

50. Du DJ, 1986. Antitumor activity of Cordyceps sinensis and cultured Cordyceps mycelia. Chung
Yao Tung Pao 11(7), 51-54

51. Eisman J.A. et al. 1988. Rapid Turnover of 1,25 Dihydroxy Vitamin D Receptor in Human
Target Cells. Endocrinol. 122:1613-21

52. Espenshade, M. A. & E. W. Griffith. 1966. Tumor-inhibiting basidiomycetes. isolation and
cultivation in the laboratory. Mycologia 58: 511-517.

53. Fehser J. et al. 1989. The Effect of Lentinan on Superoxide Dismutase Enzyme Activity in
Vitro. Immunopharmocal. (Immunotoxical.) 11(1):55-61

54. Feofilova EP, et al. 1998. [Lipid composition of fruiting bodies and submerged mycelium from
Lentinus edodes (Berk.) Sing]. Mikrobiologiia. 1998 Sep-Oct;67(5):655-9.

55. Finkelstein MP, Aynehchi S, Samadi AA, Drinis S, Choudhury MS, Tazaki H, Konno S.
Chemosensitization of carmustine with maitake beta-glucan on androgen-independent prostatic
cancer cells: involvement of glyoxalase I. J Altern Complement Med. 2002 Oct;8(5):573-80.

56. Flynn, V.T. 1991. Is the shiitake mushroom an aphrodisiac and a cause of longevitvy? From:
Science and Cultivation of Edible Fungi (Maher, ed.). Rotterdam: Balkema.

57. Fruehauf JP, 1982. The effect of lentinan on production of interleukin-1 by human monocytes.
Immunopharmacology 5(1), 65-7.

58. Fu, H. and Z. Wang. 1982. The clinical effects of Ganoderma lucidium spore preparations in 10
cases of atrophic myotonia. J. Trad. Chin. Med. 2:63-65.

59. Fujita, A., et. al. 1969. Determination of vitamin D by thin layer chromatography. II.
Determination of vitamin D in Shiitake Lentinus edodes. Vitamins 40: 129-135.

60. Gan KH, et al. 1998. Mediation of the cytotoxicity of lanostanoids and steroids of Ganoderma (5 of 26)3/4/2006 12:23:19 PM
Medicinal Mushrooms - Readings & References
tsugae through apoptosis and cell cycle. J Nat Prod. Apr; 61(4): 485-487.

61. Gao, B. and G. Yang. 1991. Effects of Ganoderm pplanatum polysaccharide on cellular and
humoral iImunity in normal and sarcoma 180 transplanted mice. Phythother. Res. 5:134- 138.
From CA 115:85011v.

62. Gao Q, et al. 1996. Characterisation of acidic heteroglycans from Tremella fuciformis Berk with
cytokine stimulating activity. Carbohydr Res.; 288: 135-142.

63. Gao QP, et al. 1996 Aug. Characterization and cytokine stimulating activities of heteroglycans
from Tremella fuciformis. Planta Med.; 62(4): 297-302.

64. Gao Q, et al. 1997. Characterization and cytokine-stimulating activities of acidic heteroglycans
from Tremella fuciformis. Planta Med.; 63(5): 457-460.

65. Gao Y, Zhou S, Wen J, Huang M, Xu A. Mechanism of the antiulcerogenic effect of Ganoderma
lucidum polysaccharides on indomethacin-induced lesions in the rat. Life Sci. 2002 Dec 27;72

66. Garland C.F. et al. 1989. Serum 25 Hydroxy-Vitamin D & Colon Cancer: 8 Year Prospective
Study. Lancet 2:1176-78

67. Geng, S. et al. 1985. Treatment of Hyperlipidemia with Cultivated Cordyceps-A Double Blind,
Randomized Placebo Control Trial. Chin. J. Integ. Med. 5(11), 652.

68. Gentao, L & R. Xu. 1985. Immuno-pharmacologic activity of Cordyceps sinensis (berk.) Sacc.
Chi J Int Trad & West Med. 21(6): 622-624.

69. Ghafar MA, Golliday E, Bingham J, Mansukhani MM, Anastasiadis AG, Katz AE. Regression
of prostate cancer following administration of Genistein Combined Polysaccharide (GCP), a
nutritional supplement: a case report. J Altern Complement Med. 2002 Aug;8(4):493-7.

70. Ghafar MA, Golliday E, Bingham J, Mansukhani MM, Anastasiadis AG, Katz AE. Regression
of prostate cancer following administration of Genistein Combined Polysaccharide (GCP), a
nutritional supplement: a case report. J Altern Complement Med. 2002 Aug;8(4):493-7.

71. Ghoneum, M., M. Wimbley, F. Salem, A. Mcklain, N. Attallan, G. Gill., 1995. Immunodulatory
and anticancer effects of active hemicellulose compound (AHCC). Int. Journal of
Immunotherapy XI (1) 23-28.

72. Gong, M. et al. 1990. Molecular structure and immunoactivity of the polysaccharide from
Cordyceps sinensis. Shengwu Huaxue Zazl. 6:486-492. From CA 1 14:94819w.

73. Gordon M, et al. 1998. A placebo-controlled trial of the immune modulator, lentinan, in HIVpositive
patients: a phase I/II trial. J Med. 29(5-6):305-30.

74. Goulet N.R. et al. 1960. Differential & Specific of Echo Viruses by Plant Extracts" - Proc. Soc.
Exp. Biol. Med. 103-96

75. Grabski AC, et al. 1998. Immobilization of manganese peroxidase from Lentinula edodes and its
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