Better Health Thru ResearchBetter Health Thru ResearchSite MapContact Better Health Thru ResearchFrequently Asked Questions
Better Health Thru ResearchBetter Health Thru Research
Better Health Thru ResearchAbout Better Health Thru ResearchBetter Health Thru Research ServicesProductsEducationTestimonialsDistributors

316 Research Papers

The last section includes 316 Research Papers

 

1. In 1960, the U.S. National Cancer Institute noted a report that a decoction of Chaga had been used successfully to treat cancer in Australia. Well known for stimulating the immune system, Chaga was approved for public use against cancer by the Medical Academy of Science in Moscow in 1955.

2. John Pezzuto of the University of Chicago is quoted as "the activity of the Betulinic acid is one of the most promising discoveries amongst 2500 plant extracts studied." The Betulinic acid contained in Chaga covers the full spectrum of immune stimulating effects found in similar medicinal mushrooms such as Maitake and Shiitake mushrooms.

3. Russian and Japanese medical professionals both contend Chaga is many times more effective than Ganoderma Lucidum or Phellinus Linteus. The International Agriculture Development Institute in Korea confirms such claims.

4. The Japanese Cancer Society claims Chaga plays an important role in combating cancer and it jointly used with pharmacology drugs and chemotherapy diminishes their side effects.

5. "It is a fact that Chaga, placed into a birch bark casket, acquires more expressed therapeutic properties. Bioactive substances of the white part of birch bark having triterpenic bonds - betulin, lupeol, betulinic acid, etc. - possess anti-cancerous activity, causing apoptosis (programmed cell death) of cancerous cells and this is transfered to Chaga, thus strengthening its properties..", says Galina Mikhaylovna Fedoseeva the Chairman of the Department of Pharmacognosy and Botany of Irkutsk State Medical University, professor, Doctor of the pharmaceutical sciences.

6. Numerous studies also indicate a 50% reduction in glycemic peaks are achieved due to the Beta Glucan effects on blood sugar levels. There are over 1000 research papers on Beta Glucan activity including studies from Harvard Medical School, National Cancer Institute, the Department of Agriculture and others. These studies prove Beta Glucan are external immunomodulators to keep one's immune system in a highly prepared state.

 

Women and Cancer Fund Letter:

 

Women and Cancer Fund
2015 N. Dobson Rd., Ste. 4 #212
Chandler, AZ 85224, USA

Mr. James Osugi

889 S. Rainbow Blvd. Suite 137
Las Vegas, NV 89145


Dear James,


After evaluating, researching and personally seeing the outcome after using Siberian
Chaga, I am pleased to inform you that the Women and Cancer Fund will be supporting
the promotion of the product.


We will be using Chaga in major studies outside of the United States as well as in the
clinics we are presently developing in the Indian Reservations of the USA. As you know,
Indian reservations have their own governmental jurisdiction. Our first Life Center will
be located in the Salt River-Pima Indian Reservation (Scottsdale, AZ.) We are not only
looking at Chaga but other protocols that can quickly affect diabetic patients. We
recommend Chaga as a disease prevention and immune system enhancer at the moment.
The studies will go deeper into each particular disease.


We have done preliminary small studies with the product you donated to our charity.
Chaga is indeed an outstanding product. We will start a study in Brazil in the spring and
we expect to start a second study in Argentina shortly after. The size and length of the
studies will be determined by the availability of funds.


I am looking forward to working with you and creating a venture that will greatly benefit
all concerned.


Cordially yours,
Dr. Alicia Alvarez


Women and Cancer Fund
Dr. Alicia Alvarez
Founder, Chairman and CEO

 

 

Chaga Study

Korean J Nutr. 2007 Oct;40(7):601-605. Korean.
Effects of Inonotus Obliqua Extract on Blood Glucose Levels in Genetically Diabetic Mice.
Hong H. Hong H.
Department of Food Service Management and Nutrition, Sangmyung University, Seoul 110-743, Korea.

    This study investigated the therapeutic effects of Inonotus obliqua extract on blood glucose, insulin, and other biochemical parameters in genetically diabetic mice (C57BL/KsJ-m+/+Lepr(db)).

The mice were divided into four groups - control, Chaga 1 (dose of 0.09 mg/kg of body weight), Chaga 5 (5 times of Chaga 1), and Chaga 10 (10 times of Chaga 1)- according to supplemented dose.. Inonotus obliqua extract was orally administered to the animals for 6 weeks. The body and organ (liver and kidney) weights were not different among groups. Fasting blood glucose level was significantly lower in the Chaga 5 group compared with the control (p < 0.05). Hemoglobin A1c content was significantly lower in the Chaga 5 group compared with either the control and Chaga 1 group (p < 0.05). There was no significant difference in serum insulin level among groups. The glucose-6-phosphatase activity in liver was significantly the lowest in Chaga 10 group and was significantly lower in Chaga 5 group as compared with those of control and Chaga 1 groups. Therefore, the results of this study demonstrate that Inonotus obliqua extract alleviates many of the symptoms of diabetes in genetically obese mice and may offer a possibility as a therapeutic supplement for the normalization of blood glucose levels in human with hyperglycemia and have beneficial effects in patients with noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus.

Chaga Research

The post-antibiotic world of Western Medicine is now beginning to study, evaluate, and test Chaga for the active compounds underlying its historically understood homeopathic benefits. As with many other natural medicinal foods and herbs, the modern medical and scientific community is coming to understand that whole supplements like Chaga, offer a complex balance of active compounds, delivery mineral structures, and co-agents, more effective to sustaining a healthy immune balance than isolated compounds synthesized from these natural products. 

The primary active compounds discovered in Siberian Chaga are a variety of triterpenes and sterols, including Lanosterol, Ergosterol Inotodials, Saponins, and Polysaccharides.Modern research is now beginning to demonstrate that these compounds are effective for human maladies treated by folk medicine practitioners with natural products, without toxic side-effect, for millennia.


After being ignored for hundreds of years by western pharmacologists, Chaga is currently enjoying a resurgence as a possible treatment for a wide variety of diseases and health problems, including chronic fatigue syndrome, the flu, stomach problems, and even HIV and certain types of cancer. Recent studies in the U.S., Russia, and other countries have shown Chaga to have anti-tumor benefits related to the mammary glands and female sex organs; studies in Finland have demonstrated that inotodial, one of the most active ingredients in Chaga, was effective against influenza virus and various cancer cells; and Japanese research not only found similar antiviral activity, but also discovered that Chaga shows activity against HIV (protease inhibition).

 Chaga has even been classified as a medicinal mushroom under World Trade Organization (WTO) codes. Arguably, the most well known western research conducted on the use of Chaga has been performed by Dr. Kirsti Kahlos and her team at School of Pharmacology, at the University of Helsinki, Finland. Dr. Kahlos’ team conducted studies validating the immuno-modulating impact of Lanosterol-linked triterpenes effective as a flu-vaccination and for anti-tumor applications. Institutional studies at the University of Tokyo, Japan have determined effectiveness of Inotodials in the destruction of certain carcinosarcomas and mammary adenocarcinomas.

The Melanin complex produced by the Chaga mushroom demonstrates high antioxidant and genoprotective effects ( Melanin Complex from Medicinal Mushroom Inonotus Obliquus, Journal of Medical Mushrooms, 2002, vol. 4) . The polysaccharide beta-glucan, also present in Chaga, is proven to be effective at inhibiting mutagenic and immuno-modulating effects of cancerous tumors by triggering immune system response (SP Wasser, 2002, Institute of Evolution, University of Haifa, Israel). In 1998 there was a study in Poland that demonstrated Chaga's inhibiting effects on tumor growth.[1] Noda et. al found that betulin seems to work highly selectively on tumor cells because the interior pH of tumor tissues is generally lower than that of normal tissues, and betulinic acid is only active at those lower levels.Fulda et al. found in 1997 that once inside the cells, betulinic acid induces apoptosis (programmed cell death) in the tumors.[2] In 2005 there was a study done at Department of Medical Nutrition in South Korea.

The Chaga Mushroom was evaluated for their potential for protecting against oxidative damage to DNA in human lymphocytes. The study found that the polyphenolic extract protected these cells against hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative stress.[3] Another study that year found the endo-polysaccharide of Chaga produced indirect anti-cancer effects via immuno-stimulation.The mycelial endo-polysaccharide of Inonotus Obliquus was identified as a candidate for use as an immune response modifier and indicates that the anti-cancer effect of endo-polysaccharide is not directly tumorcidal but rather is immuno-stimulating.[4][5] It has also been demonstrated as anti-inflammatory.[6] Saitoh Akiko published on the antimutagenic effects of Chaga in 1996, and Mizuno et al. published on the anti tumor and hypoglycemic activities of the polysaccharides from the sclerotia and mycelia of Chaga.

 The following article was published by the NCBI (National Center for Biotechnology Information) a joint venture by the National Library of Medicine and the National Institutes of Health.

Established in 1988 as a national resource for molecular biology information, NCBI creates public databases, conducts research in computational biology, develops software tools for analyzing genome data, and disseminates biomedical information - all for the better understanding of molecular processes affecting human health and disease. Chaga mushroom extract inhibits oxidative DNA damage in human lymphocytes as assessed by comet assay.The Chaga mushroom (Inonotus obliquus) is claimed to have beneficial properties for human health, such as anti-bacterial, anti-allergic, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities. The antioxidant effects of the mushroom may be partly explained by protection of cell components against free radicals. We evaluated the effect of aqueous Chaga mushroom extracts for their potential for protecting against oxidative damage to DNA in human lymphocytes. Cells were pretreated with various concentrations (10, 50, 100 and 500 microg/mL) of the extract for 1 h at 37 degrees C. Cells were then treated with 100 microM of H2O2 (Hydrogen Peroxide) for 5 min as an oxidative stress. Evaluation of oxidative damage was performed using single-cell gel electrophoresis for DNA fragmentation (Comet assay). Using image analysis, the degree of DNA damage was evaluated as the DNA tail moment.Cells pretreated with Chaga extract showed over 40% reduction in DNA fragmentation compared with the positive control (100 micromol H2O2 treatment). Thus, Chaga mushroom treatment affords cellular protection against endogenous DNA damage.

Chaga mushroom (Inonotus obliquus) induces G0/G1 arrest and apoptosis in human hepatoma HepG2 cells.

Vestibulocochlear Research Center, Wonkwang University School of Medicine, #344-2, Shinyoung-dong, Iksan, Jeonbuk 570-749, Korea.

AIM: To investigate the anti-proliferative and apoptotic effects of Chaga mushroom (Inonotus obliquus) water extract on human hepatoma cell lines, HepG2 and Hep3B cells. METHODS: The cytotoxicity of Chaga extract was screened by 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Morphological observation, flow cytometry analysis, Western blot were employed to elucidate the cytotoxic mechanism of Chaga extract.

RESULTS: HepG2 cells were more sensitive to Chaga extract than Hep3B cells, as demonstrated by markedly reduced cell viability. Chaga extract inhibited the cell growth in a dose-dependent manner, which was accompanied with G0/G1-phase arrest and apoptotic cell death. In addition, G0/G1 arrest in the cell cycle was closely associated with down-regulation of p53, pRb, p27, cyclins D1, D2, E, cyclin-dependent kinase (Cdk) 2, Cdk4, and Cdk6 expression.

CONCLUSION: Chaga mushroom may provide a new therapeutic option, as a potential anticancer agent, in the treatment of hepatoma.

Source: www.pubmed.com

 

Therapeutic effects of substances occurring in higher Basidiomycetes
mushrooms: a modern perspective.


Wasser SP & Weis AL. 1999. Crit Rev Immunol. 1999;19(1):65-96.
International Centre for Cryptogamic Plants and Fungi, Institute of Evolution, University
of Haifa, Israel.

This review highlights some of the recently isolated and identified substances of higher Basidiomycetes
mushrooms origin that express promising antitumor, immune modulating, cardiovascular and
hypercholesterolemia, antiviral, antibacterial, and antiparasitic effects. Medicinal mushrooms have a
long history of use in folk medicine. In particular, mushrooms useful against cancers of the stomach,
esophagus, lungs, etc. are known in China, Russia, Japan, Korea, as well as the U.S.A. and Canada.

There are about 200 species of mushrooms that have been found to markedly inhibit the growth of
different kinds of tumors. Searching for new antitumor and other medicinal substances from mushrooms
and to study the medicinal value of these mushrooms have become a matter of great significance.
However, most of the mushroom origin antitumor substances have not been clearly defined. Several
antitumor polysaccharides such as hetero-beta-glucans and their protein complexes (e.g., xyloglucans
and acidic beta-glucan-containing uronic acid), as well as dietary fibers, lectins, and terpenoids have
been isolated from medicinal mushrooms.

In Japan, Russia, China, and the U.S.A. several different polysaccharide antitumor agents have been developed from the fruiting body, mycelia, and culture medium of various medicinal mushrooms (Lentinus edodes, Ganoderma lucidum, Schizophyllum commune, Trametes versicolor, Inonotus obliquus, and Flammulina velutipes).

Both cellular components and secondary metabolites of a large number of mushrooms have been shown to effect the immune system of the host and therefore could be used to treat a variety of disease states.
Recent, Current & Planned Clinical Studies Using Mushrooms & Mushroom Derivatives
for the Treatment of Diseases

Dr. Stefan Glueck, MD, PhD, Medical Oncologist
The Ontario Cancer Treatment & Research Foundation
Ontario, Canada
Summary: Shiitake, Lentinula edodes & Cancer therapies. Studies on-going.
Dr. M. Ghoneum http://www.gmushrooms.com/Healthref.html (25 of 26)3/4/2006 12:23:19 PM
Medicinal Mushrooms - Readings & References
Drew University of Medicine & Science Los Angeles, CA
Summary: Shiitake, Lentinula edodes and other unnamed mushrooms ('basidiomycetous fungi') used in
a clinical study of 11 cancer patients. Study completed. Ghoneum et al. 1995. "Immunomodulatory and
anticancer effects of active hemicellulose compound (AHCC)" International Journal of Immunotherapy
XI (1) 23-28
                                                            Dr. Harry Preuss
                                            Georgetown University Washington DC

Summary: A factor in Maitake mushrooms, Grifola frondosa, reportedly has anti-diabetic properties and
helps the body control blood glucose levels by reducing insulin resistance and enhancing insulin
sensitivity. Initial studies show that Maitake fractions are free from the side effects associated with
conventional drug treatments.
References Compiled by: James Malachowski - Mycologist & Webmaster
Copyright © 1997- 2004 GMHP

 

Wild Harvested Siberian Chaga Mushroom

(Inonotus Obliquus)

 Research Studies

 Anti - Aging

 Click here

Anti - Cancer / Tumor Metastasis

 Click here

 Click here

 Click here

 Anti - Fungal

Click here

 Anti - Inflamatory

 Click here

 Click here

 Click here

 Click here 
 Antioxidant / Genoprotective

 Click here
 Click here

 Antioxidative Stress 

 Click here

 Click here

 Anti - Tumor 

Click here

Click here

Click here

Chemical Constituants 

Click here

Oxidative DNA Damage / Protection

Click here

Genoprotective 

Click here
Heart Cells 

Click here
Immuno - Stimulator 

Click here

Click here

Click here

Inhibit Cancer 

Click here
Inhibit Cancer Cell Growth 

Click here

Inhibit Tumor Growth 

Click here

Leukemia 

PDF - ADOBE DOCUMENT 

Click here

Click here

Mushroom General Information

Click here

Mushrom Study Improvement

PDF – ADOBE DOCUMENT

Click here

Story of Chaga

PDF – ADOBE DOCUMENT

Click here

Web Article

Click here

Wikepedia Link

Click here

Chemical / Nutritional

Physical Properties

 

Beta-Glucan

Click here
Betulin or Betulinic Acid

Click here

Click here

Click here

Click here

Click here

Polysaccharides

Click here

 LANGUAGE  LINKS

 CHINA

 Link List

Click here

Click here

Click here

Ant-Oxidant

Click here

Gastric Carcinoma

Click here

FINLAND

Click here

Click here

 FRANCE

Click here

Click here

Click here

 POLAND

Click here

Click here

 

                     316 Research Papers on Medicinal Mushrooms


1. Adachi, K., Nanba, H., Otsuka, M., and Kuroda, H. 1988. Blood Pressure Lowering Activity
Present in the Fruit Body of Grifola frondosa (Maitake), Chem. Phann. Bull. 36:1000-1006.


2. Adachi, K., Nanba, H., and Kuroda, H. 1987. Potentiation of Host-Mediated Antitumor Activity
in Mice by Beta-glucan Obtained from Grifola frondosa (Maitake), Chem. Pharm. Bull. 35;262-
270.


3. Akiyama, Y. et al. 1981. Immunological characteristics of anti-tumor polysaccharides lentinan
and its analogues, as immune adjuvants. In Manipulation of Host Defense Mechanisms, Aoki, T.
et al. (eds.). Amsterdam: Excerpta Medica (International Congress Series 576).


4. Amagase H. et al. 1984. L.E.M. May be Effective Against Treating Hepatitis B Cases. Abstr.
197 Gastroenterology World Congress, Lisbon


5. Antoniou L.D., et al. 1977. Reversal of Uraemic Impotence by Zinc. Lancet 2:895-98


6. Aoki T. Et al. 1984. Antibodies to HTLV-1 and HTLV-3 in Sera from Two Japanese Patients:
One with possible Pre-A.I.D.S. Lancet 2:936


7. Aoki T, 1987. Low natural killer syndrome: clinical and immunologic features. Nat Immun Cell
Growth Regul 6(3), 116-128


8. Arinaga S, 1992. Enhanced induction of lymphokine-activated killer activity after lentinan
administration in patients with gastric carcinoma. Int J Immunopharmacol 14(4), 535-53


9. Arinaga S, 1992. Enhanced production of interleukin 1 and tumor necrosis factor by peripheral
monocytes after lentinan administration in patients with gastric carcinoma. Int J
Immunopharmacol 14(1), 43-47


10. Balon TW, Jasman AP, Zhu JS. A fermentation product of Cordyceps sinensis increases wholebody
insulin sensitivity in rats. J Altern Complement Med. 2002 Jun;8(3):315-23.


11. Bao X, Fang J, Li X. Structural characterization and immunomodulating activity of a complex
glucan from spores of Ganoderma lucidum. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2001 Nov;65(11):2384-
91.


12. Brauer D, Kimmons T, Phillips M. Effects of management on the yield and high-molecularweight
polysaccharide content of shiitake (Lentinula edodes) mushrooms. J Agric Food Chem.
2002 Sep 11;50(19):5333-7.


13. Benedict, RG & LR Brady. 1972. Antimicrobial activity of mushroom metabolites. J. Pharm.
Sci. 61: 1820-1822.


14. Bobek P, 1991. Cholesterol-lowering effect of the mushroom Pleurotus ostreatus in hereditary
hypercholesterolemic rats. Ann Nutr Metab 35(4), 191-19


15. Bok JW, et al. 1999. Antitumor sterols from the mycelia of Cordyceps sinensis. Phytochemistry.
Aug;51(7):891-8.


16. Borchers AT, et al. 1999. Mushrooms, tumors, and immunity. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med. Sep;221
(4):281-93. Review.


17. Breene W. M. 1989. Nutritional & Medicinal Value of Exotic Mushrooms. Shiitake Mushrooms.
The Proceeding of a National Symposium & Trade Show University of Minnesota 100-102


18. Broadbent, D. 1966. Antibiotics produced by fungi. Bot. Rev. 32: 219-242.


19. Brodziak L, 1984. Nutritive value of the mushroom Lentinus edodes (Berk.) Sing. (shiitake)
compared with that of other edible mushrooms Rocz Panstw Zakl Hig 35(1), 59-62


20. Chang, R. 1993. Limitations and Potential applications of Ganoderma and related fungal
polyglycans in clinical ontology; First International Conference on Mushroom Biology and
http://www.gmushrooms.com/Healthref.html (3 of 26)3/4/2006 12:23:19 PM
Medicinal Mushrooms - Readings & References
Mushroom products: 96


21. Chang, R. 1994. Effective dose of ganoderma in humans. In Proc. Contributed Symposium 59A,
B. 5th Intl. Mycol. Congr., Buchanan PK, Hseu RS and Moncalvo JM (eds), Taipei, p. 101-13.


22. Chang, R. 1996. The Central Importance of the beta-glucan receptor as the basis of
immunologic bioactivity of ganoderma polysaccharides, In Reishi, Mizuno T, Kim BK (eds), II
Yang Press, Seoul, p.177-9


23. Chang, R. Y. 1996. Potential Application of Ganoderma Polysaccharides in the Immune
Surveillance and Chemoprevention of Cancer. 153-160 In: Royse, D.J. (ed). 1996. Mushroom
Biology and Mushroom Products. Proceedings of the Second International Congress.


24. Cheng HH, Hou WC, Lu ML. Interactions of lipid metabolism and intestinal physiology with
Tremella fuciformis Berk edible mushroom in rats fed a high-cholesterol diet with or without
Nebacitin. J Agric Food Chem. 2002 Dec 4;50(25):7438-43.


25. Cheng Q, 1992. Effect of cordyceps sinensis on cellular immunity in rats with chronic renal
insufficiency Chung Hua I Hsueh Tsa Chih (Taipei) 72(1), 27-29


26. Chen, A. W., 1997. Topical Use of Ganoderma Mushrooms. The Mushroom Growers
Newsletter V (11), March 1997.


27. Chen, J & R Jiang. 1980. A pharmacognostical study of the Chinese drug Lingzhi (Ganoderma).
Acta. Pharm. Sin. 15:244


28. Chen JR, 1993. The effects of Chinese herbs on improving survival and inhibiting anti-ds DNA
antibody production in lupus mice. Am J Chin Med 21(3-4), 257-26


29. Chen, K & W Zhang. 1987. Advances on anti-aging herbal medicines in China. Abstrcts of
Chinese Medicines. 1:309-330


30. Chen WC, 1995. Effects of Ganoderma lucidum and krestin on cellular immunocompetence in
gamma-ray-irradiated mice. Am J Chin Med 23(1), 71-80


31. Chen YJ, 1997. Effect of Cordyceps sinensis on the proliferation and differentiation of human
leukemic U937 cells. Life Sci 60(25), 2349-2359 (1997)


32. Cheng Q, 1992. Effect of cordyceps sinensis on cellular immunity in rats with chronic renal
insufficiency. Chung Hua I Hsueh Tsa Chih (Taipei) 72(1), 27-29


33. Chihara, G., Maeda, Y. Y. 1969 . Inhibition of mouse sarcoma 180 by polysaccharides from
lentinus edodes, Nature, vol. 222, pg. 687.


34. Chihara G, 1969. Study on the antineoplastic activity and analysis of active fractions of
Polyporaceae, Lentinus edodes and other basidiomycetes. Nippon Rinsho 27(6), 1739-174
35. Chihara G, 1970. Antitumor polysaccharides, lentinan and pachymaran. Saishin Igaku 25(5),
1043-1048


36. Chihara G, et. al. 1970. Fractionation and purification of the polysaccharides with marked
antitumor activity, especially lentinan, from Lentinus edodes (Berk.) Sing. (an edible
mushroom). Cancer Res 30(11), 2776-278


37. Chihara G, 1987. Antitumor and metastasis-inhibitory activities of lentinan as an
immunomodulator: an overview. Cancer Detect Prev Suppl 1, 423-443


38. Chiu JH, et al.1998. Cordyceps sinensis increases the expression of major histocompatibility
complex class II antigens on human hepatoma cell line HA22T/VGH cells. Am J Chin Med.
1998;26(2):159-70.


39. Cochran K.W. et al. 1967 . Botanical Sources of Influenza Inhibitors" - Anti - Microbial Agents
http://www.gmushrooms.com/Healthref.html (4 of 26)3/4/2006 12:23:19 PM
Medicinal Mushrooms - Readings & References
& Chemotherapy 515


40. Christov G, 1965. Studies on the antitumoral activity of Actinomycetes by the in vitro method.
Dokl Bolg Akad Nauk 18(6), 573-57


41. Cozens, D.D. et al. 1981a. The effect of lentinan on fertility and general reproductive
performance of the rat. Toxicol. Lett. 9:55-64.


42. Currie CR, Wong B, Stuart AE, Schultz TR, Rehner SA, Mueller UG, Sung GH, Spatafora JW,
Straus NA. Ancient tripartite coevolution in the attine ant-microbe symbiosis. Science. 2003 Jan
17;299(5605):386-8.


43. Cutler R.G. 1991. Anti-Oxidants & Ageing. Ann J. Clin. Nutr. 53:373S-379S


44. Czop, J.K., Austen, K.F. 1985. A beta-Glucan inhibit able receptor on human monocytes, J.
Immunol. 134, 2588-593.


45. Daly J.N. et al. 1988. Immune & Metabolic Effects of Arginine in the Surgical Patient" . Annal
Surg. 208(4):512-23


46. Dennart, G. and D. Tucker. 1973. Antirumor polysaccharide Lentinan, a T cell adjuvant. J. Natl.
Cancer lnst. 51:1729.


47. deVere White RW, Hackman RM, Soares SE, Beckett LA, Sun B. Effects of a mushroom
mycelium extract on the treatment of prostate cancer. Urology. 2002 Oct;60(4):640-4.


48. Ding, G. 1987. Anti-arrhythmia agents in traditional Chinese medicines. From Abstrarts of
Chinese Medicines 1:287-308.


49. Diplock A.T. 1991. Anti-Oxidant Nutrients & Disease Prevention: An Overview. Am J. Clin
Nutr. 53:189S-193S


50. Du DJ, 1986. Antitumor activity of Cordyceps sinensis and cultured Cordyceps mycelia. Chung
Yao Tung Pao 11(7), 51-54


51. Eisman J.A. et al. 1988. Rapid Turnover of 1,25 Dihydroxy Vitamin D Receptor in Human
Target Cells. Endocrinol. 122:1613-21


52. Espenshade, M. A. & E. W. Griffith. 1966. Tumor-inhibiting basidiomycetes. isolation and
cultivation in the laboratory. Mycologia 58: 511-517.


53. Fehser J. et al. 1989. The Effect of Lentinan on Superoxide Dismutase Enzyme Activity in
Vitro. Immunopharmocal. (Immunotoxical.) 11(1):55-61


54. Feofilova EP, et al. 1998. [Lipid composition of fruiting bodies and submerged mycelium from
Lentinus edodes (Berk.) Sing]. Mikrobiologiia. 1998 Sep-Oct;67(5):655-9.


55. Finkelstein MP, Aynehchi S, Samadi AA, Drinis S, Choudhury MS, Tazaki H, Konno S.
Chemosensitization of carmustine with maitake beta-glucan on androgen-independent prostatic
cancer cells: involvement of glyoxalase I. J Altern Complement Med. 2002 Oct;8(5):573-80.


56. Flynn, V.T. 1991. Is the shiitake mushroom an aphrodisiac and a cause of longevitvy? From:
Science and Cultivation of Edible Fungi (Maher, ed.). Rotterdam: Balkema.


57. Fruehauf JP, 1982. The effect of lentinan on production of interleukin-1 by human monocytes.
Immunopharmacology 5(1), 65-7.


58. Fu, H. and Z. Wang. 1982. The clinical effects of Ganoderma lucidium spore preparations in 10
cases of atrophic myotonia. J. Trad. Chin. Med. 2:63-65.


59. Fujita, A., et. al. 1969. Determination of vitamin D by thin layer chromatography. II.
Determination of vitamin D in Shiitake Lentinus edodes. Vitamins 40: 129-135.


60. Gan KH, et al. 1998. Mediation of the cytotoxicity of lanostanoids and steroids of Ganoderma
http://www.gmushrooms.com/Healthref.html (5 of 26)3/4/2006 12:23:19 PM
Medicinal Mushrooms - Readings & References
tsugae through apoptosis and cell cycle. J Nat Prod. Apr; 61(4): 485-487.


61. Gao, B. and G. Yang. 1991. Effects of Ganoderm pplanatum polysaccharide on cellular and
humoral iImunity in normal and sarcoma 180 transplanted mice. Phythother. Res. 5:134- 138.
From CA 115:85011v.


62. Gao Q, et al. 1996. Characterisation of acidic heteroglycans from Tremella fuciformis Berk with
cytokine stimulating activity. Carbohydr Res.; 288: 135-142.


63. Gao QP, et al. 1996 Aug. Characterization and cytokine stimulating activities of heteroglycans
from Tremella fuciformis. Planta Med.; 62(4): 297-302.


64. Gao Q, et al. 1997. Characterization and cytokine-stimulating activities of acidic heteroglycans
from Tremella fuciformis. Planta Med.; 63(5): 457-460.


65. Gao Y, Zhou S, Wen J, Huang M, Xu A. Mechanism of the antiulcerogenic effect of Ganoderma
lucidum polysaccharides on indomethacin-induced lesions in the rat. Life Sci. 2002 Dec 27;72
(6):731-45.


66. Garland C.F. et al. 1989. Serum 25 Hydroxy-Vitamin D & Colon Cancer: 8 Year Prospective
Study. Lancet 2:1176-78


67. Geng, S. et al. 1985. Treatment of Hyperlipidemia with Cultivated Cordyceps-A Double Blind,
Randomized Placebo Control Trial. Chin. J. Integ. Med. 5(11), 652.


68. Gentao, L & R. Xu. 1985. Immuno-pharmacologic activity of Cordyceps sinensis (berk.) Sacc.
Chi J Int Trad & West Med. 21(6): 622-624.


69. Ghafar MA, Golliday E, Bingham J, Mansukhani MM, Anastasiadis AG, Katz AE. Regression
of prostate cancer following administration of Genistein Combined Polysaccharide (GCP), a
nutritional supplement: a case report. J Altern Complement Med. 2002 Aug;8(4):493-7.


70. Ghafar MA, Golliday E, Bingham J, Mansukhani MM, Anastasiadis AG, Katz AE. Regression
of prostate cancer following administration of Genistein Combined Polysaccharide (GCP), a
nutritional supplement: a case report. J Altern Complement Med. 2002 Aug;8(4):493-7.


71. Ghoneum, M., M. Wimbley, F. Salem, A. Mcklain, N. Attallan, G. Gill., 1995. Immunodulatory
and anticancer effects of active hemicellulose compound (AHCC). Int. Journal of
Immunotherapy XI (1) 23-28.


72. Gong, M. et al. 1990. Molecular structure and immunoactivity of the polysaccharide from
Cordyceps sinensis. Shengwu Huaxue Zazl. 6:486-492. From CA 1 14:94819w.


73. Gordon M, et al. 1998. A placebo-controlled trial of the immune modulator, lentinan, in HIVpositive
patients: a phase I/II trial. J Med. 29(5-6):305-30.


74. Goulet N.R. et al. 1960. Differential & Specific of Echo Viruses by Plant Extracts" - Proc. Soc.
Exp. Biol. Med. 103-96


75. Grabski AC, et al. 1998. Immobilization of manganese peroxidase from Lentinula edodes and its
biocatalytic generation of MnIII-chelate as a chemical oxidant of chlorophenols. Biotechnol
Bioeng. 1998 Oct 20;60(2):204-15.


76. Guan YJ, 1992. Effect of Cordyceps sinesis on T-lymphocyte subsets in chronic renal failure.
Chung Kuo Chung Hsi I Chieh Ho Tsa Chih 12(6), 338-339


77. Gunde-Cimerman, N.G. and A. Cimerman, 1995. Pleurotus fruiting bodies contain the inhibitor
of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-Coenzyme A Reductase-Lovastatin®. Experimental Mycology
19:1-6.


78. Guo DZ, et al. 1984. Preliminary observation on carboxyl-methyl Poria cocos polysaccharide
http://www.gmushrooms.com/Healthref.html (6 of 26)3/4/2006 12:23:19 PM
Medicinal Mushrooms - Readings & References
(CMPCP) in treating chronic viral hepatitis. J Tradit Chin Med. Dec 1; 4(4): 282.


79. Haak-Frendscho M, 1993. Ling Zhi-8: a novel T cell mitogen induces cytokine production and
upregulation of ICAM-1 expression. Cell Immunol 150(1), 101-11


80. Hamano K, et al. 1999. The preoperative administration of lentinan ameliorated the impairment
of natural killer activity after cardiopulmonary bypass. Int J Immunopharmacol. Aug;21(8):531-
40.


81. Hamuro J, 1994. Synergistic antimetastatic effects of lentinan and interleukin 2 with pre- and
post-operative treatments. Jpn J Cancer Res 85(12), 1288-1297


82. Harada, T., & Kanetaka, T. 1987. [oral administration of LEM with EP3 improved the hepatic
functions of hepatitis-B patients in vivo without serious side effects] Kantansui, vol.14, pg.327.


83. Hartoma T.R. et al. 1977. Zinc Plasma Androgens and Male Sterility. Lancet 2:1125-26


84. Hatanaka K. et al. 1989. Synthesis of an Inhibitor of Human Immuno-Deficiency Virus
Infection. Jpn. J. Cancer Res. 80.95-98


85. Hattori T, et al. 1992. Studies on antinephritic effects of plant components (3): Effect of
pachyman, a main component of Poria cocos Wolf on original-type anti-GBM nephritis in rats
and its mechanisms. Jpn J Pharmacol. May 1; 59(1): 89-96.


86. Hatvani N, Kredics L, Antal Z, Mecs I. Changes in activity of extracellular enzymes in dual
cultures of Lentinula edodes and mycoparasitic Trichoderma strains. J Appl Microbiol. 2002;92
(3):415-23.


87. Hayakawa K, Mitsuhashi N, Saito Y, et al. Effect of Krestin (PSK) as adjuvant treatment on the
prognosis after radical radiotherapy in patients with non-small cell lung cancer. Anticancer Res
13:1815-20, 1993.


88. Hazama S, 1995. Clinical effects and immunological analysis of intraabdominal and intrapleural
injection of lentinan for malignant ascites and pleural effusion of gastric carcinoma Gan To
Kagaku Ryoho 22(11), 1595-1597


89. Herlyn D, 1985.Monoclonal antibody-dependent murine macrophage-mediated cytotoxicity
against human tumors is stimulated by lentinan. Jpn J Cancer Res 76(1), 37-42
90. Heyland DK. In search of the magic nutraceutical: problems with current approaches. J Nutr.
2001 Sep;131(9 Suppl):2591S-5S.
91. Hirasawa M, et al. 1999. Three kinds of antibacterial substances from Lentinus edodes (Berk.)
Sing. (Shiitake, an edible mushroom). Int J Antimicrob Agents. Feb;11(2):151-7.
92. Hishida I, 1988. Antitumor activity exhibited by orally administered extract from fruit body of
Grifola frondosa (maitake). Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo) 36(5), 1819-1827
93. Hockaday TD. Two herbal preparations, Cordyceps Cs4 and Cogent db: do they act on blood
glucose, insulin sensitivity, and diabetes as "viscous dietary fibers?". J Altern Complement Med.
2002 Aug;8(4):403-5.
94. Hokama Y. et al. 1981. In Vitro Inhibition of Platelel Aggregation with Low dalton Compounds
from Aqueous Dialysates of Edible Fungi. Res. Comm. Chem. Pathol. & Pharmacol. 31:177-80
95. - Honma, H., Oshima, S., Watanabe, S. et al. (1982). Clinical efficacy of schizophyllan (SPG) in
treatment of lung cancers. A Randomized controlled study. Haigan 22: 499-512.
96. Hong, Z. & Y. Li. 1990. Immuno-pharmacological functions of Cordyceps. Chi J Int Trad &
West Med. 10(9): 570-571.
97. Horiuchi Y, Kimura R, Kato N, Fujii T, Seki M, Endo T, Kato T, Kawashima K. Evolutional
http://www.gmushrooms.com/Healthref.html (7 of 26)3/4/2006 12:23:19 PM
Medicinal Mushrooms - Readings & References
study on acetylcholine expression. Life Sci. 2003 Feb 28;72(15):1745-1756.
98. Hu H, Ahn NS, Yang X, Lee YS, Kang KS. Ganoderma lucidum extract induces cell cycle
arrest and apoptosis in MCF-7 human breast cancer cell. Int J Cancer. 2002 Nov 20;102(3):250-
3.
99. Hugenholtz J, Smid EJ. Nutraceutical production with food-grade microorganisms. Curr Opin
Biotechnol. 2002 Oct;13(5):497-507.
100. Hsu MJ, Lee SS, Lin WW. Polysaccharide purified from Ganoderma lucidum inhibits
spontaneous and Fas-mediated apoptosis in human neutrophils through activation of the
phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase/Akt signaling pathway. J Leukoc Biol. 2002 Jul;72(1):207-16.
101. Iino Y, Yokoe T, Ohwada S, et al. Eight-year results of adjuvant immunochemotherapies vs
chemotherapy in the treatment of operable breast cancer. 18th International Congress of
Chemotherapy. June 27-July 2, 1993, Stockholm, Sweden, p. 162, 1993.
102. Ikekawa T, 1969. Antitumor activity of aqueous extracts of edible mushrooms. Cancer Res 29
(3), 734-735
103. Ikumoto, T. et al 1991. Physiologically active compounds in the extracts from Tockukaso and
cultured mycelia of Cordyceps and Isaria. Yakugaku Zasshi 111(9): 504-509.
104. Inoue A, Kodama N, Nanba H. Effect of maitake (Grifola frondosa) D-fraction on the control of
the T lymph node Th-1/Th-2 proportion. Biol Pharm Bull. 2002 Apr;25(4):536-40.
105. Irinoda, K. 1992. Stimulation of microbicidal host defense mechanisms against aerosol
influenza virus infection by lentinan. Int. j Immunopharmacol. 14:971-977.
106. Ishii K, Kita T, Hirata J, et al. Antitumor effect of PSK and its combined effect with CDDP on
ovarian serous adenocarcinoma-bearing nude mice. Nippon Sanka Fujinka Gakkai Zasshi
45:333-9, 1993.
107. Ishizuka T, 1995. Effects of interferon-gamma on cell differentiation and cytokine production of
a human monoblast cell line, U937. Inflammation 19(6), 627-636 (1995)
108. Ito H, 1972. Antitumor activity of Basidiomycetes. Nippon Yakurigaku Zasshi 68(4), 429-44
109. James, J. S. 1986. Shiitake, Lentinen, and AIDS/ARC. Aid Treatment News. 19:1-6.
110. Jennemann R, et al. 1999. Basidiolipids from Agaricus are novel immune adjuvants.
Immunobiology. Jun;200(2):277-89.
111. Jia, YF., Zhou, XB., Meng, H., and Zhang, LX. Effects of Ling-Zhi on hemopoietic system in
mice - immunopharmacological study (11). In The research on ganoderma (part I). Zhu S. and
Mori M. (eds). Shanghai Med. U. Press, Shanghai, P. 284-288.
112. Jingyi W, et al. 1997. Observation on the effects of Chinese medicine zhenxuanyin for
improving cerebral blood flow in rats with cerebral ischemia. J Tradit Chin Med. Dec;17(4):299-
303.
113. Jong, S.C., J.M. Birmingham and S.H. Pai, 1991. Immuno-modulatory substances of fungal
origin. Journal of Immunol. Immunopharamacol. Vol. XI, N. 3.
114. Jong, S.C. and J.M. Birmingham, 1992. Medicinal effects of the mushroom Ganoderma. Adv.
Appl. Microbiol. 37:101-134.
115. Jong SC, 1993. Medicinal and therapeutic value of the shiitake mushroom. Adv Appl Microbiol
39, 153-184
116. Kabir Y, 1987. Effect of shiitake (Lentinus edodes) and maitake (Grifola frondosa) mushrooms
on blood pressure and plasma lipids of spontaneously hypertensive rats. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol
http://www.gmushrooms.com/Healthref.html (8 of 26)3/4/2006 12:23:19 PM
Medicinal Mushrooms - Readings & References
(Tokyo) 33(5), 341-346
117. Kahlos, K. et al., 1996. Preliminary tests of antiviral activity of two Inonotus obliquus strains.
Fitopterapia 6 (4) 344-7.
118. Kanayama H, et al. 1983. A new antitumor polysaccharide from the mycelia of Poria cocos
wolf. Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo). Mar 1; 31(3): 1115-1118.
119. Kanayama H, et al. 1986. [Studies on the antitumor-active polysaccharides from the mycelia of
Poria cocos Wolf. I. Fractionation and purification of antitumor polysaccharide H11]. Yakugaku
Zasshi. Mar 1; 106(3): 199-205. Japanese.
120. Kanayama H, et al. 1986. [Studies on the antitumor-active polysaccharides from the mycelia of
Poria cocos Wolf. II. Structural analysis of antitumor polysaccharide H11]. Yakugaku Zasshi.
Mar 1; 106(3): 206-211. Japanese.
121. Kanayama H, et al. 1986. [Studies on the antitumor active polysaccharides from the mycelia of
Poria cocos Wolf. III. Antitumor activity against mouse tumors]. Yakugaku Zasshi. Apr 1; 106
(4): 307-312. Japanese.
122. Kanemoto, M. 1983. Acute Oral Toxicity Study of Lentinus Edodes Mycelial Powder
(Moncelium rtm powder) in Male and Female Mice, Biotechnical Research Laboratories, Inc.,
Tech. Report No. 830916A, Oct. 20.
123. Kato, T., et al. 1979. Reduction of serum X-proline-dipeptidyl-aminopeptidase activity in tumorbearing
mice and reversal of reduced enzyme activity by lentinan, an anti-tumor polysaccharide,
Experimentia, vol. 35 (3), pg. 409.
124. Kawagishi et al., 1991. "Hericenones C, D and E, Stimulators of nerve growth factor (NGF)-
synthesis from the mushroom Hericium erinaceum." Tetrahedron Letters, vol. 32, no. 35, pp.
4561-4564.
125. Kawagishi et al., 1994. Erinacines A, B, C, strong stimulators of nerve growth factor synthesis,
from the mycelia of Hericium erinaceum. Tetrahedron Letters 35 (10): 1569-1572.
126. Kawagishi H, 1997. A lectin from mycelia of the fungus Ganoderma lucidum. Phytochemistry
44(1), 7-10
127. Keogh E.J. and Impotence Study Group of Western Australia . 1991. Medical Management of
Impotence. Mod. Med. Australia 2:51-65
128. Kiho T, 1993. Polysaccharides in fungi. XXXII. Hypoglycemic activity and chemical properties
of a polysaccharide from the cultural mycelium of Cordyceps sinensis. Biol Pharm Bull 16(12),
1291-1293
129. Kiho T, et al. 1995. Polysaccharides in fungi. XXXV. Anti diabetic activity of an acidic
polysaccharide from the fruiting bodies of Tremella aurantia. Biol Pharm Bull.; 18(12): 1627-
1629.
130. Kiho T, 1996. Polysaccharides in fungi. XXXVI. Hypoglycemic activity of a polysaccharide
(CS-F30) from the cultural mycelium of Cordyceps sinensis and its effect on glucose
metabolism in mouse liver. Biol Pharm Bull 19(2), 294-296
131. Kiho T, et al. 1999. Structural features and hypoglycemic activity of a polysaccharide (CS-F10)
from the cultured mycelium of Cordyceps sinensis. Biol Pharm Bull. Sep;22(9):966-70.
132. Kim, B.K., H.W. Kim and E.C. Choi, 1994. Anti-HIV effects of Ganoderma lucidum. In :
Ganoderma: Systematics, Phytopathology & Pharmacology: Proceedings of Contributed
Symposium 59 A,B. 5th International Mycological Congress. Vancouver.
http://www.gmushrooms.com/Healthref.html (9 of 26)3/4/2006 12:23:19 PM
Medicinal Mushrooms - Readings & References
133. Kim, B.K., H.W. Kim and E.C. Choi, 1996. Medicinal Efficacies of Ganoderma lucidum (XV)
Anti-HIV Activities of Ganoderma lucidum. 187-194. In: Royse, D.J. (ed). 1996. Mushroom
Biology and Mushroom Products. Proceedings of the Second International Congress.
134. Kim DH, et al.1999. Beta-glucuronidase-inhibitory activity and hepatoprotective effect of
Ganoderma lucidum. Biol Pharm Bull. 1999 Feb;22(2):162-4.
135. Kim HS, et al. 1999. In vitro chemopreventive effects of plant polysaccharides (Aloe
barbadensis miller, Lentinus edodes, Ganoderma lucidum and Coriolus versicolor).
Carcinogenesis. Aug;20(8):1637-40.
136. Kim KC, et al. 1999. Ganoderma lucidum extract protects DNA from strand breakage caused by
hydroxyl radical and UV irradiation. Int J Mol Med. Sep;4(3):273-7.
137. Kim JR, Yeon SH, Kim HS, Ahn YJ. Larvicidal activity against Plutella xylostella of
cordycepin from the fruiting body of Cordyceps militaris. Pest Manag Sci. 2002 Jul;58(7):713-7.
138. Kim RS, 1997. Suppressive effects of Ganoderma lucidum on proliferation of peripheral blood
mononuclear cells. Mol Cells 7(1), 52-5
139. Kim SW, Hwang HJ, Xu CP, Sung JM, Choi JW, Yun JW. Optimization of submerged culture
process for the production of mycelial biomass and exo-polysaccharides by Cordyceps militaris
C738. J Appl Microbiol. 2003;94(1):120-6.
140. Kobayashi H, Kumagai F, Itagaki T, Koyama T, Inokuchi N, Iwama M, Ohgi K, Irie M. Amino
acid sequence and characterization of a nuclease (nuclease Le3) from Lentinus edodes. Biosci
Biotechnol Biochem. 2002 Jun;66(6):1345-55.
141. Kodama N, Komuta K, Nanba H. Can maitake MD-fraction aid cancer patients? Altern Med
Rev. 2002 Jun;7(3):236-9. Review.
142. Kodama N, Harada N, Nanba H. A Polysaccharide, Extract From Grifola frondosa, Induces Th-
1 Dominant Responses in Carcinoma-Bearing BALB/c Mice. Jpn J Pharmacol. 2002 Dec;90
(4):357-60.
143. Kodama N, Komuta K, Sakai N, Nanba H. Effects of D-Fraction, a Polysaccharide from Grifola
frondosa on Tumor Growth Involve Activation of NK Cells. Biol Pharm Bull. 2002 Dec;25
(12):1647-50.
144. Koh JH, Kim JM, Chang UJ, Suh HJ. Hypocholesterolemic Effect of Hot-Water Extract from
Mycelia of Cordyceps sinensis. Biol Pharm Bull. 2003 Jan;26(1):84-7.
145. Koh JH, Yu KW, Suh HJ, Choi YM, Ahn TS. Activation of macrophages and the intestinal
immune system by an orally administered decoction from cultured mycelia of Cordyceps
sinensis. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2002 Feb;66(2):407-11.
146. Konishi, H. 1988. Polysaccharides-contg. extracts from Heterobasidiae as anti inflammatory
agents. Jpn. Kokai Tokkyo Koho 63 JP 63, 183, 537 [88,183,537].
147. Koyama K, 1997. Antinociceptive components of Ganoderma lucidum. Planta Med 63(3), 224-
227 (1997)
148. Kubo, K., H. Aoki, & H. Nanba, 1994. Anti-diabetic activity present in the fruit body Grifola
frondosa (Maitake). Biol. Pharm. Bull. 17, 8: 1106-1110.
149. Kubo K, 1996. The effect of maitake mushrooms on liver and serum lipids. Altern Ther Health
Med 2(5), 62-66
150. Kuo YC, 1994. Growth inhibitors against tumor cells in Cordyceps sinensis other than
cordycepin and polysaccharides. Cancer Invest 12(6), 611-615
http://www.gmushrooms.com/Healthref.html (10 of 26)3/4/2006 12:23:19 PM
Medicinal Mushrooms - Readings & References
151. Kuo YC, 1996. Cordyceps sinensis as an immunomodulatory agent. Am J Chin Med 24(2), 111-
125 (1996)
152. Kupin, V. (1994) A new biological response modifier - ganoderma lucidum - and its application
in oncology. In Proceedings from the 6th international symposium on ganoderma lucidum.
Seoul, II Yang, p.36-37.
153. Kurashige S, 1997. Effects of Lentinus edodes, Grifola frondosa and Pleurotus ostreatus
administration on cancer outbreak, and activities of macrophages and lymphocytes in mice
treated with a carcinogen, N-butyl-N-butanolnitrosoamine. Immunopharmacol Immunotoxicol
19(2), 175-183
154. Lee, SS., Chen, FD., Chang, SC., et al. 1984. In vivo anti-tumor effects of crude extracts from
the mycelium of ganoderma lucidum. J. of Chinese Oncology Society 5(3): 22-28.
155. Lei J, 1992. Pharmacological study on Cordyceps sinensis (Berk.) Sacc. and ze-e Cordyceps
Chung Kuo Chung Yao Tsa Chih 17(6), 364-366
156. Lei LS, 1993. Effects of Ganoderma polysaccharides on the activity of DNA polymerase alpha
of splenocytes and immune function in aged mice. Yao Hsueh Hsueh Pao 28(8), 577-58
157. Li SP, Su ZR, Dong TT, Tsim KW. The fruiting body and its caterpillar host of Cordyceps
sinensis show close resemblance in main constituents and anti-oxidation activity.
Phytomedicine. 2002 May;9(4):319-24.
158. Lieu CW. 1992. The effect of Ganoderma lucidum on induction of differentiation in leukemic
U937 cells. Anticancer Res 12(4), 1211-1215
159. Lin CY. 1999. Inhibition of activated human mesangial cell proliferation by the natural product
of Cordyceps sinensis (H1-A): an implication for treatment of IgA mesangial nephropathy. J
Lab Clin Med. Jan;133(1):55-63.
160. Lin JM, 1993. Evaluation of the anti-inflammatory and liver-protective effects of anoectochilus
formosanus, ganoderma lucidum and gynostemma pentaphyllum in rats. Am J Chin Med 21(1),
59-69
161. Lin JM, 1995. Radical scavenger and antihepatotoxic activity of Ganoderma formosanum,
Ganoderma lucidum and Ganoderma neo-japonicum. J Ethnopharmacol 47(1), 33-4
162. Lin WH, 1997. Dimerization of the N-terminal amphipathic alpha-helix domain of the fungal
immunomodulatory protein from Ganoderma tsugae (Fip-gts) defined by a yeast two-hybrid
system and site-directed mutagenesis. J Biol Chem 272(32), 20044-20048
163. Lin, Z.-B, 1993. Advances in the pharmacology of Tremella polysaccharides. Mushroom
Biology and Mushroom Products. S.T. Chang et al., pp. 293-298. The Chinese University Press.
164. Lin, Y. & G. Wu, 1988. Protective effect of Polyporus umbellatus polysaccharide on toxic
hepatitis in mice. 9:345-348, from Abstracts of Chinese Medicines 1: 444.
165. Lin, Y. et al., 1987. A double-blind treatment of 72 cases of chronic hepatitis with Lentinan
injection. New Drugs and Clinical Remedies 6:362-363, from Abstracts of Chinese Medicines
2:325.
166. _______, 1989. Pharmacological and gastronomic effects of fungi and its applications.
Chemical Times, No.1, p. 12-21.
167. Lin PZ, 1984. Inhibitory effect of Cordyceps on carcinogenesis of the forestomach in mice.
Chung Hua Chung Liu Tsa Chih 6(5), 335-337
168. Liu ZY, et al. 1993. [Effect of improving memory and inhibiting acetylcholinesterase activity by
http://www.gmushrooms.com/Healthref.html (11 of 26)3/4/2006 12:23:19 PM
Medicinal Mushrooms - Readings & References
invigorating-qi and warming-yang recipe, Poria cocos]. Chung Kuo Chung Hsi I Chieh Ho Tsa
Chih. Nov 1; 13(11): 675-676. Chinese.
169. Liu, C. 1992. Effects of Cordyceps sinensis on in vitro natural killer cells. Chung-Kua, chung
Hsi I Chieh Ho Tsa Chih 12: 267-269, 259.
170. Liu YC, et al. 1995. [Effects of poria cocos on ototoxicity induced by kanamycin in guineapigs].
Chung Kuo Chung Hsi I Chieh Ho Tsa Chih. Jul 1; 15(7): 422-423. Chinese.
171. Liu F, et al. 1999; Analysis of immunomodulating cytokine mRNAs in the mouse induced by
mushroom polysaccharides. Life Sci. 64(12):1005-11.
172. Liu X, Yuan JP, Chung CK, Chen XJ. Antitumor activity of the sporoderm-broken germinating
spores of Ganoderma lucidum. Cancer Lett. 2002 Aug 28;182(2):155-61.
173. Lu H, Kyo E, Uesaka T, Katoh O, Watanabe H. Prevention of development of N,N'-
dimethylhydrazine-induced colon tumors by a water-soluble extract from cultured medium of
Ganoderma lucidum (Rei-shi) mycelia in male ICR mice. Int J Mol Med. 2002 Feb;9(2):113-7.
174. Lu ZW, 1995. Psychoneuroimmunological effects of morphine and the immunoprotection of
Ganoderma polysaccharides peptide in morphine-dependent mice. Sheng Li Ko Hsueh Chin
Chan 26(1), 45-49
175. Luo J, Zhao YY, Li ZB. A new lanostane-type triterpene from the fruiting bodies of Ganoderma
lucidum. J Asian Nat Prod Res. 2002 Jun;4(2):129-34.
176. Ma J, Ye Q, Hua Y, Zhang D, Cooper R, Chang MN, Chang JY, Sun HH. New lanostanoids
from the mushroom Ganoderma lucidum. J Nat Prod. 2002 Jan;65(1):72-5.
177. Maeda YY, 1996. Two genes controlling acute phase responses by the antitumor polysacch
aride, lentinan. Immunogenetics 43(4), 215-219
178. Maeda YY & G. Chihara. 1971. Lentinen, a new immuno-accelerator of cell mediated response.
Nature (London) 229: 634.
179. Manabe N, 1996. Effects of the mycelial extract of cultured Cordyceps sinensis on in vivo
hepatic energy metabolism in the mouse. Jpn J Pharmacol 70(1), 85-88.
180. Manohar V, Talpur NA, Echard BW, Lieberman S, Preuss HG. Effects of a water-soluble
extract of maitake mushroom on circulating glucose/insulin concentrations in KK mice.
Diabetes Obes Metab. 2002 Jan;4(1):43-8.
181. Masayasu, N., et al. 1987. The Effects of the Alcohol Deposit Fraction LAP of LEM in
Reinforcing the Macrophages Phagocytosis Ability, J. Japanese Reticuloendothelial System Res.
Assoc., vol. 27(1), pp. 201-207.
182. Matsuoka H, 1995. Usefulness of lymphocyte subset change as an indicator for predicting
survival time and effectiveness of treatment with the immunopotentiator lentinan. Anticancer
Res 15(5B), 2291-2296
183. Matsuoka H, 1997. Lentinan potentiates immunity and prolongs the survival time of some
patients. Anticancer Res 17(4A), 2751-2755
184. Mau JL, Lin HC, Chen CC. Antioxidant properties of several medicinal mushrooms. J Agric
Food Chem. 2002 Oct 9;50(21):6072-7.
185. Mitomi, T., Tsuchiya, S., Iijima, N., et al. 1992. Randomized control study on adjuvent
immunochemotherapy with PSK in curatively resected colorectal cancer. Diseases of the Colon
& Rectum. 35(2):123-30.
186. Mattila P, Salo-Vaananen P, Konko K, Aro H, Jalava T. Basic composition and amino acid
http://www.gmushrooms.com/Healthref.html (12 of 26)3/4/2006 12:23:19 PM
Medicinal Mushrooms - Readings & References
contents of mushrooms cultivated in Finland. J Agric Food Chem. 2002 Oct 23;50(22):6419-22.
187. Miyamoto, T., Abe, T., Hasunuma, K. 1985. Japan Kokai Tokkyo Koho JP60, 199,80
[85,199.810] (CI. A61K7/06). Appl. 84/5,977. 24 Mar 1984.
188. Miyazaki T, 1981. Studies on fungal polysaccharides. XXVII. Structural examination of a watersoluble,
antitumor polysaccharide of Ganoderma lucidum. Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo) 29(12),
3611-3616
189. Miyakoshi H, 1984. Acting mechanisms of Lentinan in human--I. Augmentation of DNA
synthesis and immunoglobulin production of peripheral mononuclear cells. Int J
Immunopharmacol 6(4), 365-371
190. Miyakoshi H, 1984. Acting mechanisms of Lentinan in human--II. Enhancement of non-specific
cell-mediated cytotoxicity as an interferon inducer. Int J Immunopharmacol 6(4), 373-379
191. Mizoguchi, Y. et al. 1987. Protection of liver cells against experimental damage by extract of
cultured Lentinus edodes mycelia (LEM). Gast. Japonica 22:459-464.
192. Mizoguchi, Y., et al. 1987. Determination of IL-1 Activity in the Supernatant of a Macrophage
Culture Treated with LEM, Kantansui, vol. 15(1), pp. 127-135.
193. Mizoguchi, Y. 1987. The Effects of LEM on the Induction of anti-TNP-SRBC Antibody
Producing Cells by PWM Stimulation, Kantansui, vol. 15(1), pp. 127-135.
194. Mizono M, 1996. Preparation and specificity of antibodies to an anti-tumor beta-glucan,
lentinan. Biochem Mol Biol Int 39(4), 679-685 (1996)
195. Mizuno, T., 1988. Development and utilization of bioactive substances from medicinal and
edible mushroom fungi. II. Ganoderma lucidum. Chemical Times 1989 (3) 50-60.
196. Mizuno, T., Hagiwara, T., Nakamura, T., Ito, H. Shimura, K. Sumiya, T., Asakura, A. 1990.
Antitumor activity and some properties of water-insoluble hetero-glycans from
"Himematsutake," the fruting body of Agaricus blazei Murill. Agricultural & Biological
Chemistry 54. Tokyo. pp. 2897-2905.
197. Mizuno T, 1992. Antitumor-active polysaccharides isolated from the fruiting body of Hericium
erinaceum, an edible and medicinal mushroom called yamabushitake or houtou. Biosci
Biotechnol Biochem 56(2), 347-348
198. Mizuno, T., H. Saito, T. Nishitoba, & H. Kawagishi, 1995. Antitumor active substances from
mushrooms. Food Reviews International 111: 23-61.
199. Mizuno, T. 1996. A development on anti tumor polysaccharides from mushroom fungi. FFI
Journal, 167:69-85.
200. Mlodecki H, 1968. Tryptophan content in some edible mushrooms. Rocz Panstw Zakl Hig 19
(4), 453-457
201. Mori, H.1987. Effect of immunostimulants and antitumor agents on tumor necrosis factor (TNF)
production. Int. J. Immunopharmacol. 9: 881-882.
202. Morinaga H, 1994. An in vivo study of hepatic and splenic interleukin-1 beta mRNA expression
following oral PSK or LEM administration. Jpn J Cancer Res 85(12), 1298-1303
203. Muhlbacher F. & Kapadia C. 1982. Glutamine Metabolism in Skeletal Muscle Role of
Glucocorticoids. Langenbeck's Arch. Chir. 357:203 (abstr.)
204. Murakami M, 1997. Decreased pulmonary perfusion in hypersensitivity pneumonitis caused by
Shiitake mushroom spores. J Intern Med 241(1), 85-88 (1997)
205. Murata T, 1996. Lentinan enhances sensitivity of mouse colon 26 tumor to cishttp://
www.gmushrooms.com/Healthref.html (13 of 26)3/4/2006 12:23:19 PM
Medicinal Mushrooms - Readings & References
diamminedichloroplatinum (II) and decreases glutathione transferase expression. Jpn J Cancer
Res 87(11), 1171-1178
206. Murcia MA, Martinez-Tome M, Jimenez AM, Vera AM, Honrubia M, Parras P. Antioxidant
activity of edible fungi (truffles and mushrooms): losses during industrial processing. J Food
Prot. 2002 Oct;65(10):1614-22.
207. Nakamura K, et al.1999. Inhibitory effect of Cordyceps sinensis on spontaneous liver metastasis
of Lewis lung carcinoma and B16 melanoma cells in syngeneic mice. Jpn J Pharmacol. 1999
Mar;79(3):335-41.
208. Nakamura K. 1999. Activation of in vivo Kupffer cell function by oral administration of
Cordyceps sinensis in rats.Jpn J Pharmacol. 1999 Apr;79(4):505-8.
209. Nakano H, et al. 1999. A multi-institutional prospective study of lentinan in advanced gastric
cancer patients with unresectable and recurrent diseases: effect on prolongation of survival and
improvement of quality of life. Kanagawa Lentinan Research Group. Hepatogastroenterology.
Jul-Aug;46(28):2662-8.
210. Nakazato H, Koike A, Saji S, et al. Efficacy of immunochemotherapy as adjuvant treatment
after curative resection of gastric cancer. Study Group of Immunochemotherapy with PSK for
Gastric Cancer. Lancet 343(8906):1122-6, 1994.
211. Nanba, H. 1987. The chemical structure of an antitumor polysaccharide in fruitbodies of Grifola
frondosa (Maitake). Chem. Pharm. Bull. 35:1162-8
212. Nanba, H. 1995. Results of Non-Controlled Clinical Study for Various Cancer Patients Using
Maitake D-Fraction. Explore! vol. 6, no. 5: 19-21.
213. Nanba H. 1995. Activity of maitake D-fraction to inhibit carcinogenesis and metastasis. Ann N
Y Acad Sci; 768:243-5 1995
214. Narui T, et al. 1980. A polysaccharide produced by laboratory cultivation of Poria cocos Wolf.
Carbohydr Res.Dec 1; 87(1): 161-163.
215. Nemoto Y, Satoh K, Toriizuka K, Hirai Y, Tobe T, Sakagami H, Nakashima H, Ida Y.
Cytotoxic and radical scavenging activity of blended herbal extracts. In Vivo. 2002 Sep-Oct;16
(5):327-32.
216. Ng TB. 1998. A review of research on the protein-bound polysaccharide (polysaccharopeptide,
PSP) from the mushroom Coriolus versicolor (Basidiomycetes: Polyporaceae). Gen Pharmacol.
1998 Jan;30(1):1-4.
217. Ng ML, Yap AT. Inhibition of Human Colon Carcinoma Development by Lentinan from
Shiitake Mushrooms (Lentinus edodes). J Altern Complement Med. 2002 Oct;8(5):581-9
218. Nunoshsiba, T., et. al. 1990. Antimutagenic activity of hoelen extracts. Sci. Eng. Rev. Doshisha
Univ. 30:266-272.
219. Odani S, et al. 1999. The inhibitory properties and primary structure of a novel serine proteinase
inhibitor from the fruiting body of the basidiomycete, Lentinus edodes. Eur J Biochem. Jun;262
(3):915-23.
220. O'Dorisia M.S. et al. 1985. Vasoactive Intestinal Polypeptide & Neuropeptide Modulation of the
Immuno Response. J. Immunol. 135:792S-796S
221. Ogawa K, 1994. Study on intratumor administration of lentinan--primary changes in cancerous
tissues. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho 21(13), 2101-2104
222. Ogawa T, et al. 1999. Effects of 5'-DFUR and lentinan on cytokines and PyNPase against AH66
http://www.gmushrooms.com/Healthref.html (14 of 26)3/4/2006 12:23:19 PM
Medicinal Mushrooms - Readings & References
ascites hepatoma in rats. Anticancer Res. Jan-Feb;19(1A):375-9.
223. Oguchi, Y. 1987. Effect of PSK on cytotoxicity against sarcoma180 in tumor-bearing mice.
Anticancer Research. Pt. B 7:681-4.
224. Ohmori T, 1986. Antitumor activity of protein-bound polysaccharide from Cordyceps
ophioglossoides in mice. Jpn J Cancer Res 77(12), 1256-126
225. Ohno N, 1985. Neutral and acidic antitumor polysaccharides extracted from cultured fruit
bodies of Grifola frondosa. Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo) 33(3), 1181-118
226. Ohno, N., K. Iino, T. Takeyama, I. Suzuki, K. Sato, S. Oikawa, T. Miyazaki, & T. Yadomae,
1985. Structural characterization and antitumor activity of the extracts from matted mycelium of
cultured Grifola frondosa.. Chem. Pharm. Bull. 33 (8) 3395-3401.
227. Ohtsuru, M. ,l 992 Anti-Obesity Activity Exhibited by Orally Administered Powder of Maitake
Mushroom (Grifola frondosa), Anshin, July, pp. 198.
228. Okamura M, 1994. Distribution of ascorbic acid analogs and associated glycosides in
mushrooms. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo) 40(2), 81-9
229. Okamoto, K., et al. 1993. Antimocrobial chlorinated orcinol derivatives from mycelium of
Hericium erinaceus. Phytochemistry, vol. 34, no. 5, pp. 1445-1446.
230. Okazaki M, Adachi Y, Ohno N, Yadomae. 1995. Structure-activity relationship of (1-->3)-beta-
D-glucans in the induction of cytokine production from macrophages, in vitro. Biol Pharm Bull;
18(10):1320-7.
231. Okuda, T., Yoshioka, T., et al. 1972. Anti-complementary activity of anti-tumor
polysaccharides, Nature, New Biol., vol. 238, pg. 59.
232. Olsen R. et al. 1989. In: Bio-Medical Applications of Chiton & its Derivitives - Chilin &
Chitosan Eds. S.K. Jak-Brack et al. Elsevier Science Pub. 813-28
233. Ooi LS, Liu F, Ooi VE, Ng TB, Fung MC. Gene expression of immunomodulatory cytokines
induced by Narcissus tazetta lectin in the mouse. Biochem Cell Biol. 2002;80(2):271-7.
234. Otsuka M, 1996. Influences of a shiitake (Lentinus edodes)-fructo-oligosaccharide mixture (SK-
204) on experimental pulmonary thrombosis in rats Yakugaku Zasshi 116(2), 169-173 (1996)
235. Park EJ, 1997. Antifibrotic effects of a polysaccharide extracted from Ganoderma lucidum,
glycyrrhizin, and pentoxifylline in rats with cirrhosis induced by biliary obstruction. Biol Pharm
Bull 20(4), 417-420
236. Pochanavanich P, Suntornsuk W. Fungal chitosan production and its characterization. Lett Appl
Microbiol. 2002;35(1):17-21.
237. Rafique M, 1995. Effects of intraportal administration of chemoimmunotherapeutic agents on
natural killer cell activity in the rat liver. J Surg Oncol 60(3), 154-159
238. Salvucci O, 1996. Differential regulation of interleukin-12- and interleukin-15-induced natural
killer cell activation by interleukin-4. Eur J Immunol 26(11), 2736-2741
239. Sasaki T, 1976. Further study of the structure of lentinan, an anti-tumor polysaccharide from
Lentinus edodes. Carbohydr Res 47(1), 99-104
240. Sato T, et al. 1998. Transformation of the edible basidiomycete Lentinus edodes by restriction
enzyme-mediated integration of plasmid DNA. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 1998 Dec;62
(12):2346-50.
241. Scharf, M. B. et al. 1989. Comparative Effects of Prazosin and Hydrochlorothiazide on Sexual
Function in Hypertensive Men. Am. J. Med. 86 Supp 18:110-112
http://www.gmushrooms.com/Healthref.html (15 of 26)3/4/2006 12:23:19 PM
Medicinal Mushrooms - Readings & References
242. Schillings RT & HW Ruekius. 1968. Poricin, an acidic protein with anti-tumor activity from a
basidiomycete. II. Crystalization, composition and properties. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 127:
672-679.
243. Schinella GR, Tournier HA, Prieto JM, Mordujovich D, Rios JL. Antioxidant activity of antiinflammatory
plant extracts. Life Sci. 2002 Jan 18;70(9):1023-33.
244. Shao G, 1985. Treatment of hyperlipidemia with cultivated Cordyceps--a double-blind,
randomized placebo control trial. Chung Hsi I Chieh Ho Tsa Chih 5(11), 652-65
245. Shieh YH, Liu CF, Huang YK, Yang JY, Wu IL, Lin CH, Li SC. Evaluation of the hepatic and
renal-protective effects of Ganoderma lucidum in mice. Am J Chin Med. 2001;29(3-4):501-7.
246. Shimada Y, Morita T, Sugiyama K. Effects of Lentinus edodes on fatty acid and molecular
species profiles of phosphatidylcholine in rats fed different levels of corn oil. Biosci Biotechnol
Biochem. 2002 Aug;66(8):1759-63.
247. Shi, JH. 1993. PSP for the protection of the tumorous patients during chemotherapy. In 1993
PSP Intl Symposium, Yang QY and Kwok CY (eds.), Fudan U. Press, Shanghai, p.271-2
248. Shi YL, James AE, Benzie IF, Buswell JA. Mushroom-derived preparations in the prevention of
H2O2-induced oxidative damage to cellular DNA. Teratog Carcinog Mutagen. 2002;22(2):103-
11.
249. Sia GM, et al. 1999. Effects of shiitake (Lentinus edodes) extract on human neutrophils and the
U937 monocytic cell line. Phytother Res. 1999 Mar;13(2):133-7.
250. Sliva D, Labarrere C, Slivova V, Sedlak M, Lloyd FP Jr, Ho NW. Ganoderma lucidum
suppresses motility of highly invasive breast and prostate cancer cells. Biochem Biophys Res
Commun. 2002 Nov 8;298(4):603-12.
251. Smriga M, et al. 1995. Hoelen (Poria Cocos Wolf) and ginseng (Panax Ginseng C. A. Meyer),
the ingredients of a Chinese prescription DX-9386, individually promote hippocampal long-term
potentiation in vivo. Biol Pharm Bull. Apr 1; 18(4): 518-522.
252. Snow E.C. 1985. Insulin & Growth Hormone Function as Minor Growth Factors that Potentiate
Lymphyocyte Activation. J. Immunol. 135 Suppl.740-746.
253. Soo, T.S., 1994. The therapeutic value of Ganoderma lucidum. Proceedings of Contributed
Symposium 59 A,B. 5th International Mycological Congress. Vancouver. pp. 105-113.
254. Soo, T. S. 1996. Effective Dosage of the extract of Ganoderma lucidum in the Treatment of
Various Ailments. 177-186 In: Royse, D.J. (ed). 1996. Mushroom Biology and Mushroom
Products. Proceedings of the Second International Congress.
255. Sorimachi, K., et al. 1990. Anti-Viral Activity of Water-solubilized Lignin Derivatives in vitro,
Agri. Biol. Chem., vol.54(5), pp.1337-1339.
256. Spittler A, 1997. Effects of 1 alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 and cytokines on the expression of
MHC antigens, complement receptors and other antigens on human blood monocytes and U937
cells: role in cell differentiation, activation and phagocytosis. Immunology 90(2), 286-293
(1997)
257. Stackl W. Et al. 1988. Intracavernous Injection of Prostaglandin E1 in Impotent Men. J. Urol
140:67-68
258. Stavinoha, W. 1993. Short term dietary supplementation with ganoderma lucidum slows
development and growth of microadenomatous lesions in the colon .... Presented at the 5th
international symposium on ganoderma lucidum, Seoul, Korea on June 17, 1993.
http://www.gmushrooms.com/Healthref.html (16 of 26)3/4/2006 12:23:19 PM
Medicinal Mushrooms - Readings & References
259. Stavinoha, W., Satsangi, N., & Weintraub, S. 1995. Study of the antiinflammatory efficacy of
Ganoderma lucidum. In B.-K. Kim, & Y.S. Kim (Eds.), Recent Advances in Ganoderma
lucidum research (pp. 3-7). Seoul Korea: The Pharmaceutical Society of Korea. Stavinoha, W.,
Slana, J., Weintraub, S., & Mobley, P. (1991). The Antiinflammatory activity of Ganoderma
lucidum. Third International Symposium on Ganoderma lucidum, 9-21.
260. Suga, T., Shiio, T., Maeda, YY., Chihara, G. 1994. Anti tumor activity of lenytinan in murine
syngeneic and autochthonous hosts and its suppressive effect on 3 methylcholanthrene induced
carcinogenesis. Cancer Res. 44:5132-7.
261. Sugano, N. et al. 1982. Anticarcinogenic actions of water soluble ans alcohol insoluable
fractions of culture medium of Lentinus edodes mycelia. Cancer Letters 17: 109-114.
262. Sun L, Cai H, Xu W, Hu Y, Lin Z. CaMV 35S promoter directs beta-glucuronidase expression
in Ganoderma lucidum and Pleurotus citrinopileatus. Mol Biotechnol. 2002 Mar;20(3):239-44.
263. Suzuki M, 1994. Curative effects of combination therapy with lentinan and interleukin-2 against
established murine tumors, and the role of CD8-positive T cells. Cancer Immunol Immunother
38(1), 1-8
264. Szedlay G. Is the widely used medicinal fungus the Ganoderma lucidum (Fr.) Karst. sensu
stricto? (A short review). Acta Microbiol Immunol Hung. 2002;49(2-3):235-43. Review.
265. Taguchi T. et al. 1985. End Point Results of Phase 3 Study of Lentinan. Japanese J. Cancer
Chemother. 12:366-78
266. Taguchi, T.1987. Clinical efficacy of lentinan on patients with stomach cancer: end point results
of four-year follow-up survey. Cancer Detection & Prevention. Suppl. 1:333-49.
267. Takehara, M. et al. 1983. Antitumor effects of virus-like particles from Lentinus edodes
(Shiitake) on Ehrlich Acsites Carcinoma in mice. Archiv Virology 68: 297-301.
268. Takeshita K, 1991. Diversity of complement activation by lentinan, an antitumor
polysaccharide, in gastric cancer patients Nippon Geka Gakkai Zasshi 92(1), 5-11
269. Takeshita K, 1993. Effect of lentinan on lymphocyte subsets of peripheral blood, lymph nodes,
and tumor tissues in patients with gastric cancer. Surg Today 23(2), 125-129
270. Takatsuki F, 1995. Lentinan augments skin reaction induced by bradykinin: its correlation with
vascular dilatation and hemorrhage responses and antitumor activities. Int J Immunopharmacol
17(6), 465-474
271. Takeshita K, 1996. Monocyte function associated with intermittent lentinan therapy after
resection of gastric cancer. Surg Oncol 5(1), 23-28
272. Talpur NA, Echard BW, Fan AY, Jaffari O, Bagchi D, Preuss HG. Antihypertensive and
metabolic effects of whole Maitake mushroom owder and its fractions in two rat strains. Mol
Cell Biochem. 2002 Aug;237(1-2):129-36.
273. Talorete TP, Isoda H, Maekawa T. Agaricus blazei (class Basidiomycotina) aqueous extract
enhances the expression of c-Jun protein in MCF7 cells. J Agric Food Chem. 2002 Aug 28;50
(18):5162-6.
274. Tamura R, 1997. Effects of lentinan on abnormal ingestive behaviors induced by tumor necrosis
factor. Physiol Behav 61(3), 399-410
275. Tan YH, 1994. High concentrations of mannitol in the shiitake mushroom Lentinula edodes.
Microbios 78(318), 31-35 (1994)
276. Tani M, 1993. Augmentation of lymphokine-activated killer cell activity by lentinan. Anticancer
http://www.gmushrooms.com/Healthref.html (17 of 26)3/4/2006 12:23:19 PM
Medicinal Mushrooms - Readings & References
Res 13(5C), 1773-1776
277. Tochikura S.T. et al. 1987. Suppression Human Immuno-Deficiency Virus Replication by 3-
Azido -3- Deoxythymidine in Various Human Haematopoetic Cell Lines Invitro: Augmentation
by the Effect of Lentinan. JPN. J. Cancer Res. (Gann) 78:583
278. Tochikura, T.S., et al. 1988. Inhibition (in vitro) of replication and of the cyptopathic effect of
human immunodeficiency virus by an extract of the culture medium of Lentinus edodes
mycelia, Med. Microbiol. Immunol., vol. 177, pp.235-244.
279. Tokuzen, R., & Okabe, M. 1976. Combined effect of cyclocytidine and lentinan on spontaneous
mammary tumors in mice, Gann, vol. 67, pg. 327.
280. Torisu M, Hayashi Y, Ishimitsu T, et al. Significant prolongation of disease-free period gained
by oral polysaccharide K (PSK) administration after curative surgical operation of colorectal
cancer. Cancer Immunol Immunother 31:261-8, 1990.
281. Tseng J, et al. 1992. Suppression of tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-1 beta, interleukin-
6 and granulocyte-monocyte colony stimulating factor secretion from human monocytes by an
extract of Poria cocos. Chung Hua Min Kuo Wei Sheng Wu Chi Mien I Hsueh Tsa Chih. Feb 1;
25(1): 1-11.
282. Tsunoo, A., N. N. Takemoto, H. Tsuboi, M. Kamiho, A. Nemoto, H. Sasaki, M. Uchida, 1995.
Cordyceps sinensis: its diverse effects on mammals in vitro and in vivo. New Initiatives in
Mycological Research: Proceedings of the Third International Symposium of the Mycological
Society of Japan.
283. Tsunoda A. & Ishida N. 1970. A Mushroom Extract as an Interferon Inducer. Ann N.Y. Acad.
Sci. 173:719-26
284. Ukai S, 1972. Antitumor activity on sarcoma 180 of the polysaccharides from Tremella
fuciformis Berk. Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo) 20(10), 2293-2294
285. Ukai S; Kiho T; Hara C; Kuruma I; Tanaka Y 1983. Polysaccharides in fungi. XIV. Antiinflammatory
effect of the polysaccharides from the fruit bodies of several fungi. J
Pharmacobiodyn, 6:12, 983-90
286. Ukiya M, Akihisa T, Tokuda H, Hirano M, Oshikubo M, Nobukuni Y, Kimura Y, Tai T, Kondo
S, Nishino H. Inhibition of tumor-promoting effects by poricoic acids G and H and other
lanostane-type triterpenes and cytotoxic activity of poricoic acids A and G from Poria cocos. J
Nat Prod. 2002 Apr;65(4):462-5.
287. van der Hem LG, 1995. Ling Zhi-8: studies of a new immunomodulating agent. Transplantation
60(5), 438-443
288. Vetter J, 1995. Mineral and amino acid contents of edible, cultivated shii-take mushrooms
(Lentinus edodes) Z Lebensm Unters Forsch 201(1), 17-19
289. Wagner, H. & A. Proksch. 1995. Immunostimulatory Drugs of Fungi and Higher Plants. In:
Economic and Medical Plant research. Acadenic Press, NY.
290. Wan, F. and D. Huango. 1992. Anti-inflammatory and analgesic actions of artificial and
fermentative Ganoderma sinensis (AFGS). Chung Kuo Chung Yao Tsa Chih 10: 619-622, 640.
291. Wang, G. 1993. Antitumor active polyaccharides from the Chinese mushroom Songshan lingzhi,
the fruiting body of Ganoderma tsugae. Bioscience, Biotech. and Biochem. 57: 894-900.
292. Wang GL, 1996. The immunomodulatory effect of lentinan Yao Hsueh Hsueh Pao 31(2), 86-90
293. Wang SM, et al. 1998. Effects of a water-soluble extract of Cordyceps sinensis on
http://www.gmushrooms.com/Healthref.html (18 of 26)3/4/2006 12:23:19 PM
Medicinal Mushrooms - Readings & References
steroidogenesis and capsular morphology of lipid droplets in cultured rat adrenocortical cells. J
Cell Biochem. Jun 15; 69(4): 483-489.
294. Wang SY, 1997. The anti-tumor effect of Ganoderma lucidum is mediated by cytokines released
from activated macrophages and T lymphocytes. Int J Cancer 70(6), 699-705 (1997)
295. Wang LY, et al. 1993. [Studies on chemical constituents from solvent extracts of Poria cocos
(Schw.) Wolf]. Chung Kuo Chung Yao Tsa Chih. Oct 1; 18(10): 613-614. Chinese.
296. Wang YY, Khoo KH, Chen ST, Lin CC, Wong CH, Lin CH. Studies on the immuno-modulating
and antitumor activities of Ganoderma lucidum (Reishi) polysaccharides: functional and
proteomic analyses of a fucose-containing glycoprotein fraction responsible for the activities.
Bioorg Med Chem. 2002 Apr;10(4):1057-62.
297. Wasser SP, et al. 1999. Therapeutic effects of substances occurring in higher Basidiomycetes
mushrooms: a modern perspective. Crit Rev Immunol. 1999;19(1):65-96. Review.
298. Wasser SP. Medicinal mushrooms as a source of antitumor and immunomodulating
polysaccharides. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2002 Nov;60(3):258-74. Review.
299. Watson R.R. et al. 1986. Selenium & Vitamins A.C.E. Nutrients with Cancer Prevention
Properties. J. Am Diet. Assoc. 86(4):505-10
300. Wei L, et al. 1999. Treatment of complications due to peritoneal dialysis for chronic renal
failure with traditional Chinese medicine. J Tradit Chin Med. Mar;19(1):3-9.
301. Weigent D.A. & Blalock J.E. 1987. Interactions Between the Neuro Endocrine and Immune
Systems; Common Hormones & Receptors. Immunol. Ref. 100:79-1
302. Weng SC, Chou CJ, Lin LC, Tsai WJ, Kuo YC. Immunomodulatory functions of extracts from
the Chinese medicinal fungus Cordyceps cicadae. J Ethnopharmacol. 2002 Nov;83(1-2):79-85.
303. Winkles JA, 1998. Serum- and polypeptide growth factor-inducible gene expression in mouse
fibroblasts. Prog Nucleic Acid Res Mol Biol 58, 41-78.
304. Won, SJ., Lee, SS., Ke, YH., Lin, MT. 1989 Enhancement of splenic NK cytotoxic activity by
the extracts of ganoderma lucidum mycelium in mice. J Biomed Lab Sci 2:201-213.
305. Wrenshall LE, et al. 1999. Modulation of macrophage and B cell function by
glycosaminoglycans. J Leukoc Biol. Sep;66(3):391-400.
306. Xia, E. and Q. Chen. 198. Isolation, analysis and biological activities of the polysaccharide of
Tremella Fuciformis. ACTA Mycol. Sin. 7:166-174.
307. Xioa, L. 1987. Progress in the studies of Chinese drugs with immunological actions.
Zhongchengyao Yanjiu. 3:25-27.
308. Xiao PG, 1993. Immunological aspects of Chinese medicinal plants as antiageing drugs. J
Ethnopharmacol 38(2-3), 167-17
309. Xiong, H-Z. 1985. Clinical observations of 45 cases of chronic hepitis by the treatment with
Tremella fuciformis polysaccgaride. Chin. f. Antibiot. 10:363-365.
310. Xu RH, 1992. Effects of cordyceps sinensis on natural killer activity and colony formation of
B16 melanoma. Chin Med J (Engl) 105(2), 97-101
311. Xu WH, 1988. Water-soluble constituents of Cordyceps sinenses (Berk.) Sacc.--the nucleosides.
Chung Yao Tung Pao 13(4), 34-36
312. Xo, W. Z. et al. 1988. Effects of Cordyceps on monoamine oxidase and immunity. Sha J Trad
Chinese Med 1: 48-49.
313. Yamada, Y., H. Nanba, H. Kuroda, 1990. Antitumor effect of orally administered extracts from
http://www.gmushrooms.com/Healthref.html (19 of 26)3/4/2006 12:23:19 PM
Medicinal Mushrooms - Readings & References
fruitbody of Grifola frondosa (Maitake). Chemotherapy (Tokyo) 38, 8: 790-796.
314. Yamaguchi N, 1990. Augmentation of various immune reactivities of tumor-bearing hosts with
an extract of Cordyceps sinensis. Biotherapy 2(3), 199-20.
315. Yang BK, Kim DH, Jeong SC, Das S, Choi YS, Shin JS, Lee SC, Song CH. Hypoglycemic
effect of a Lentinus edodes exo-polymer produced from a submerged mycelial culture. Biosci
Biotechnol Biochem. 2002 May;66(5):937-42.
316. Yang LY, Huang WJ, Hsieh HG, Lin CY. H1-A extracted from Cordyceps sinensis suppresses
the proliferation